The article is devoted to the peculiarities of agriculture in Uzbekistan and the problems of agrarian reforms and institutional transformations, the search for new organizational forms and management methods capable of ensuring the effective use of land, water, material and financial resources, as well as prospects for the development of the agricultural sector of the republic.
At present, science has become an acute question of a theoretical rationale for the development of agriculture in the long term, which implies, on the one hand, a return to the traditions of the evolutionary approach, on the other - the use of economic research into economic analysis, which allows to include purely economic processes wider context of socio - economic, political and cultural changes.
Theoretical tools for studying the interaction of the economic behavior of people with the institutional environment, as well as the patterns of development of the institutional structure of the economy, have been developed within the framework of the institutional-evolutionary direction of science, which has reborn for the last 20–30 years; The Republic of Uzbekistan has not paid enough attention yet. The use of this toolkit to analyze current problems of the agricultural sector helps to find answers to the following topical issues related to identifying an effective way of long-term development of agriculture in the transformation period. Subjects in a market agrarian economy are two types: full owner and owner to use. The preference was given to the second type. Such owners were transferred to state land for long-term lease. Based on this, institutional reforms in agriculture were carried out .
Since 1993, state agricultural enterprises began to transform into various non-state enterprises. From 1991 to 2003, the Republic of Uzbekistan conducted a search for effective forms of management that would meet modern requirements and the mentality of the population .
The study shows that since 2000, the share of agriculture in the gross domestic product has been decreasing. However, at the same time a stable average annual production growth was achieved. These successes have become possible thanks to a great deal of success in the development of this project. Based on the characteristics of our republic and world experience, we stopped at dekhkan farms as the main form of agricultural enterprises .
A farm is an independent economic entity with the rights of a legal entity, based on joint activities of a member of a Russian farm, conducting commercial agricultural production using indus try. s y u cha with tkov provided to him for long term rent. At present, land for farms is allocated on the basis of competition for long-term lease from 30 to 50 years.
Currently, there are more than 74,107 farmer enterprises in the republic, about 4,744 dekhkan agricultural enterprises and. More than half of the farms are specialized in the production of cotton and grain crops and occupy about 67% of the sown area (an average of 106.3 hectares of land), 8.3% of farms are specialized in animal husbandry (about 205 hectares of land), the rest of the farms grow vegetables, melons, fruits, grapes and other products (an average of 13.1 to 23.5 hectares of land). Studies show that farming is gradually being favored. So, if in 2001 they had only 20.2% of the total sown area, then in 2013 already 84.8%. Industrial enterprises and agricultural enterprises declined, and farms - almost 4.5 times increased. Little has happened in the indicators of the sown area of farms. They occupy only 12.8% of the total sown area .
If in 2001 agricultural enterprises produced 30.7% of the gross product, and farms only 8.4%, in 2013 the volume of this product was 2 and 34%, respectively. As a result, the gross product of agricultural enterprises amounted to only 11% compared to 2001, in farms it grew by more than 7.1 times. Growth in the gross output of dekhkan farms amounted to 181.5% . As you know, one of the important indicators of agricultural efficiency is the level of production of gross domestic product per hectare of land. Analyzing the data given in table. 3, it can be concluded that the efficiency of land use in Uzbekistan has gradually improved every year . During 2001–2013 it increased by 162.8%, including:
• for farms - by 160.5%;
• for dekhkan farms - by 148.3%;
• for agricultural enterprises - by 309.3%.
The gross product from 1 ha was:
• in co-operation with co-owners with x x p 1 p x - 1,656.5 thousand soums;
• in dekhkan farms - 9,646.2 thousand soums;
• in farms - 776.9 thousand soums.
In terms of land use, dehkan farms are the most efficient. Studies show that they, occupying 12.8% of the acreage, produce more than 64% of the gross agricultural output. The efficiency of dekhkan farms in gross product per hectare relative to the average level in the republic is 497.7%, agricultural enterprises 85.5%, and farms 40.1%. 
The comparative analysis was used as a methodological basis.
The features of reforming the agrarian sector in the Republic of Uzbekistan are shown, as well as the need for a theoretical substantiation of the advantages of various forms of farms and the determination of their criteria. The problems and factors affecting the decrease in the efficiency of farm production are analyzed, and proposals are presented to improve their efficiency.
From a theoretical point of view, the justification of effective farming in various forms and their management can be carried out based on the neoinstitutional theory of economics. At the same time, the main criteria are property rights and transaction costs, and the most effective forms that are suitable according to the mentality of the inhabitants of our republic are dekhkan and farm enterprises. Further development of agriculture is closely linked with the development of farms. The development of these forms of farms requires further improvement of the regulatory legal framework, strengthening priority and guaranteeing the inviolability of private property, rigorous fulfillment of the obligations specified in the contracts between service providers and farmers, as well as the strict observance of the “rules of the game” and the implementation of those activities that they themselves have opportunities.
We hereby say thank you to Tashkent State University of Economics for supporting our research