Vol 8 No 2 (2023): December

Hematological Parameters and Liver Function After COVID-19 Vaccination ( Simple Population Patients in Ramadi City – Iraq)

Ridhab Ajeel Jasim
College of Pure science, University of Anbar, Iraq *
Saif Subhi Noori
College of Pure science, University of Anbar, Iraq
Adeeb Shakir Mahmood
College of Pure science, University of Anbar, Iraq
Asmaa Wajeh Jumaa
College of Education for women, University Of Anbar, Iraq
Fatin Zuher Abd Alkareem
College of Pure science, University of Anbar, Iraq

(*) Corresponding Author
Picture in here are illustration from public domain image or provided by the author, as part of their works
Published September 6, 2023
  • COVID-19 vaccination,
  • liver function,
  • blood parameters,
  • young adults,
  • Anbar province
How to Cite
Ajeel Jasim , R., Noori, S. S., Mahmood , A. S., Jumaa, A. W., & Alkareem, F. Z. A. (2023). Hematological Parameters and Liver Function After COVID-19 Vaccination ( Simple Population Patients in Ramadi City – Iraq). Academia Open, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.21070/acopen.8.2023.7843


This study aimed to investigate the influence of COVID-19 vaccination on liver function and blood parameters, specifically Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Hemoglobin (HGB) levels, among young adults (aged 18-32) in Anbar province. Blood samples from 50 individuals were collected at Ramadi Teaching Hospital, with half of the participants vaccinated and the other half unvaccinated. Results revealed a significant decrease in MCV and HGB levels among the vaccinated group compared to the unvaccinated group. Concurrently, liver function indicators, including Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), and Bilirubin, showed a marked increase in the vaccinated individuals, indicating potential hematological disorders and liver injury. These findings underscore the importance of COVID-19 vaccination while highlighting the need for continued monitoring of liver health and blood parameters in vaccinated individuals to mitigate potential long-term health implications.


  • COVID-19 vaccination in young adults may lead to a significant decrease in Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Hemoglobin (HGB) levels.
  • Liver function indicators such as Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), and Bilirubin exhibit a notable increase in vaccinated individuals.
  • Continuous monitoring of liver health and blood parameters is crucial for assessing potential long-term health implications associated with COVID-19 vaccination.

Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccination, Liver Function, Blood Parameters, Young Adults, Anbar Province.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. C. Huang, Y. Wang, X. Li, L. Ren, J. Zhao, Y. Hu, et al., "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China," Lancet, 2020, pp. 497–506.
  2. Z. Wu and J.M. McGoogan, "Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72,314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention," JAMA, vol. 323, no. 13, pp. 1239–1242, 2020.
  3. C. Efe, R. Dhanasekaran, C. Lammert, B. Ebik, F. Higuera-dela Tijera, C. Aloman, et al., "Outcome of COVID-19 in patients with autoimmune hepatitis: an international multicenter study," Hepatology, vol. 73, pp. 2099–2109, 2021.
  4. O. Sharma, A.A. Sultan, H. Ding, and C.R. Triggle, "A Review of the Progress and Challenges of Developing a Vaccine for COVID-19," Front. Immunol., vol. 11, p. 585354, 2020.
  5. T. Fiolet, Y. Kherabi, C.J. MacDonald, J. Ghosn, and N. Peiffer-Smadja, "Comparing COVID-19 vaccines for their characteristics, efficacy and effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern: A narrative review," Clin. Microbiol. Infect., vol. 28, pp. 221–202, 2021.
  6. J.A. Wolff, R.W. Malone, P. Williams, W. Chong, G. Acsadi, A. Jani, et al., "Direct gene transfer into mouse muscle in vivo," Science, vol. 247, Pt 1, pp. 1465–1468, 1990.
  7. F.P. Polack, S.J. Thomas, N. Kitchin, J. Absalon, A. Gurtman, S. Lockhart, et al., "Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine," N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 383, pp. 2603–2615, 2020.
  8. J.R. Tejaro and D.L. Farber, "COVID-19 vaccines: modes of immune activation and future challenges," Nat Rev Immunol., vol. 21, pp. 195–197, 2021.
  9. Y. Chen, Z. Xu, P. Wang, X.M. Li, Z.W. Shuai, D.Q. Ye, et al., "New-onset autoimmune phenomena post COVID-19 vaccination," Immunology, vol. 165, pp. 386–401, 2021.
  10. F. Bril, S. Al Diffalha, M. Dean, and D.M. Fettig, "Autoimmune hepatitis developing after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine: causality or casualty?," J Hepatol, vol. 75, pp. 222–224, 2021.
  11. H. Shroff, S.K. Satapathy, J.M. Crawford, N.J. Todd, and L.B. VanWagner, "Liver injury following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: a multicenter case series," J Hepatol, vol. 76, pp. 211–214, 2022.
  12. Z. Cao, H. Gui, Z. Sheng, H. Xin, and Q. Xie, "Letter to the editor: exacerbation of autoimmune hepatitis after COVID-19 vaccination," Hepatology, vol. 75, pp. 757–759, 2022.
  13. A. Mauriello, M. Scimeca, I. Amelio, R. Massoud, A. Novelli, F. Di Lorenzo, et al., "Thromboembolism after COVID-19 vaccine in patients with preexisting thrombocytopenia," Cell Death Dis., vol. 12, p. 762, 2021.
  14. A. Mani and V. Ojha, "Thromboembolism after COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review of Such Events in 286 Patients," Ann. Vasc. Surg., vol. 84, pp. 12–20.e11, 2022.
  15. J.S. Tregoning, K.E. Flight, S.L. Higham, Z. Wang, and B.F. Pierce, "Progress of the COVID-19 vaccine effort: Viruses, vaccines and variants versus efficacy, effectiveness and escape," Nat. Rev. Immunol., vol. 21, pp. 626–636, 2021.
  16. M. Cascella, M. Rajnik, A. Aleem, S.C. Dulebohn, and R. Di Napoli, "Features, Evaluation, and Treatment of Coronavirus (COVID-19)," StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island, FL, USA, 2022.
  17. B.J. Boyarsky, W.A. Werbel, A.A. Avery, A.A. Tobian, A.B. Massie, D.L. Segev, et al., "Antibody response to 2-dose SARS-COV-2 mRNA vaccine series in solid organ transplant recipients," JAMA, vol. 325, pp. 2204–2206, 2021.
  18. Y. Azzi, R. Bartash, J. Scalea, P. Loarte-Campos, and E. Akalin, "COVID-19 and solid organ transplantation: A review article," Transplantation, vol. 105, pp. 37–55, 2021.
  19. B. Barchielli, C. Cricenti, F. Gallè, E.A. Sabella, F. Liguori, G. Da Molin, et al., "Climate Changes, Natural Resources Depletion, COVID-19 Pandemic, and Russian-Ukrainian War: What Is the Impact on Habits Change and Mental Health?," Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 19, p. 11929, 2022.
  20. World Health Organization, "COVID-19 vaccination dashboard 2022," [Online]. Available: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines.
  21. A.F. Hernandez, D. Calina, K. Poulas, A.O. Docea, and A.M. Tsatsakis, "Safety of COVID-19 vaccines administered in the EU: Should we be concerned?," Toxicol Rep., vol. 8, pp. 871–879, 2021.
  22. H. Shroff, S.K. Satapathy, J.M. Crawford, N.J. Todd, and L.B. VanWagner, "Liver injury following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: a multicenter case series," J Hepatol, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 211–214, 2022.
  23. A. Al Mutair, S. Alhumaid, W.N. Alhuqbani, A.R.Z. Zaidi, S. Alkoraisi, M.F. Al-Subaie, A.M. AlHindi, A.K. Abogosh, A.K. Alrasheed, A.A. Alsharafi, et al., "Clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia: an observational cohort study," Eur J Med Res., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2020.
  24. S. Alhumaid, A. Al Mutair, Z. Al Alawi, K. Al Salman, N. Al Dossary, A. Omar, M. Alismail, A.M. Al Ghazal, M.B. Jubarah, and A. Al SH, "Clinical features and prognostic factors of intensive and non-intensive COVID-19 patients: an experience cohort from Alahsa, Saudi Arabia," Eur J Med Res., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2021.
  25. A. Vojdani and D. Kharrazian, "Potential antigenic cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and human tissue with a possible link to an increase in autoimmune diseases," Clin Immunol., vol. 217, p. 108480, 2020.
  26. O. Tarawneh and H. Tarawneh, "Immune thrombocytopenia in a 22-year old post Covid-19 vaccine," Am J Hematol., 2021.
  27. E.J. Lee, D.B. Cines, T. Gernsheimer, et al., "Thrombocytopenia following Pfizer and Moderna SARS-CoV-2 vaccination," Am J Hematol., 2021.