This research employs a psychoanalytic approach to investigate the effects of phobias on the psychological security of adolescents and the implications for their socio-educational development. The study postulates that phobias result in emotional discomfort and dissatisfaction, thereby weakening individuals' volitional sphere and impairing decision-making capabilities. Data collected were empirically analyzed to discern the balance between self-emotional assessment and psychological protection opportunities during adolescence. The results indicate that phobias, among other effects, reduce environmental tolerance, hinder self-control and personal belief in one's strengths, impede resistance to internal and external influences, decrease self-satisfaction, disrupt communicative skills, and negatively affect the mental state. These impacts collectively lead to a significant drop in the efficiency of the activities a person engages in. Consequently, the study underscores the importance of proper educational interventions from school administrators, teachers, psychologists, and parents to ensure the psychological well-being of adolescents. This approach promises to enhance their resilience and psychological security, enabling their optimal participation in socio-economic activities.
- Phobias significantly affect the psychological security of adolescents, impairing their decision-making capabilities and reducing their overall effectiveness in activities.
- A psychoanalytic approach provides insights into the balance between self-emotional assessment and psychological protection opportunities during adolescence.
- Educational interventions from stakeholders (school administrators, teachers, psychologists, parents) are critical in managing phobias among adolescents, promoting psychological well-being, and fostering socio-economic participation.
Keywords: Phobias, Adolescents, Psychological Security, Psychoanalytic Approach, Emotional Discomfort
The President of our country, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, told the citizens of our country, "Innovation means the future." If we start building our great future today, we should start it on the basis of innovative ideas and an innovative approach," he says, and requires fundamental changes in all areas of education in order to acquire a broad intellectual potential of young people. The great tasks required to achieve socio-economic development require people to mobilize their strength and potential as fully as possible .
In such conditions, there is a high risk of physical and mental stress, and their prevention, preventing them from hindering a person's work, socio-economic activity, first of all, requires a deep study of the mechanisms of action of this factor . Approached from this point of view, one of the urgent problems in the field of education today is to identify the factors that have a negative impact on the effectiveness of education related to emotional processes in groups of students and to eliminate their influence.
In the current period of scientific and technical development, conditions, situations, objects can frighten people or become hidden threats. This is why it is necessary to study fear more scientifically than other fundamental emotions. Research into fear provides a broader understanding of this emotion . Phobia is one of the emotional states that strongly affects the normal course of mental processes in a person. In many cases, due to phobia, the volitional sphere is weakened, and a person cannot find the strength to make a decision or control the situation.
A phobia can prevent people from living a normal life and have a negative impact on their personal, social and professional activities. The impact of phobias on a person's psychological safety can be negative and subjective. The problem of psychological safety and self-protection (protection) of a person has always been one of the most urgent problems facing mankind. After all, a person's social development in all aspects, his activity as a person and his self-development largely depend on this process [7[.
It is worth noting separately that if people have sufficient knowledge about their psychological capabilities, achievements and shortcomings in a certain area, it will help them to easily overcome any failures they encounter in life, to be able to use their capabilities more widely, and in other words, it creates ample opportunities for the formation of more bright, active positive and unique social value perceptions about themselves.
Fear is a normal emotional state that prompts us to protect ourselves from danger and seek ways to avoid it. It is impossible to never feel fear, while the absence of fear and anxiety is also a sign of a mental disorder. But some people also have sticky fears, i.e., phobias, which are expressed by inadequate reactions to a certain situation and situation. A person with a phobia understands that the fear is unreasonable, but cannot get rid of it. Everyone is prone to sticky fears .
That is why phobias are quite common. A phobia is a persistent and unreasonable fear of a situation, an event, or an object. People with phobias experience panic attacks even when they think about the object or situation that causes their fear. A phobia can prevent people from living a normal life and have a negative impact on their personal, social and professional activities. Phobia is characterized by a strong and stable manifestation of fear, a high desire to avoid the object that causes fear .
People with phobias feel fear even when thinking about the thing or situation that scares them, but they usually feel very comfortable when they can avoid the thing and thoughts about it. Most of them know very well that their fears are extreme and unfounded. Some do not know the source of their fears. According to data, 10-11% of the world's population suffers from various phobias. This condition can appear in a person unexpectedly and for an unknown reason .
In explaining the nature of neuroses in psychoanalysis, great attention is paid to the concepts of the Oedipus complex, fear, and defense mechanisms. Fear has the same nature in all people. It takes over us at lightning speed, leaving the individual unable to control such a spontaneous attack. We are powerless in the face of fear, we succumb to it.
Panic occurs when fear is completely out of control. Here we fall into a state of helpless childish fear that has supposedly already been overcome. However, at the same time, fear can be a signal (sign) of perceived and goal-directed danger. We perceive it and process it with the power of our psychic abilities, and we are able to confront the fear and eliminate the danger behind it .
At the moment, the number of studies devoted to the problems of psychological safety in scientific circles is increasing. This problem can be studied from the point of view of environmental security on the one hand, and from the point of view of personal security. Many scientific works have studied various personal characteristics related to the safety of a person in one or another situation. At the same time, it is difficult to distinguish a set of specific personal qualities and characteristics that ensure the protection of a person in society. At the same time, to a greater or lesser extent, we can talk about individual characteristics that ensure adequate perception of changing external conditions.
Currently, there are several interpretations of the concept of "psychological safety of a person" in science, and in most cases, the psychological safety of a person is an independent study of the laws of adequate reflection of risk and practical management of behavior in order to maintain the integrity and stability of an individual or a group of people as a psychological system. considered as a field of science. In some studies, this concept is defined as the ability and capabilities of a system to maintain itself, while in another, it is defined as a system of guarantees that ensures protection from internal and external threats and sustainable development. Many definitions confirm the idea that security is aimed at maintaining the system, ensuring its normal existence.
The dynamics of psychological security is causally connected with the perceptual and thinking operations carried out by the person, individual-typological characteristics, personal characteristics, working conditions, subject-object relations, ergonomic appearance of the environment (compatibility of the environmental conditions with the individual characteristics of the person). Psychological safety in a person: matching the subject's capabilities, values, needs with the reflected real characteristics of being, a high level of mutual compatibility of voluntary processes, the development of corporate culture, the subject's personal qualities: assertiveness (Assertiveness is a qualification of self-confidence .
Independent behavior the ability to manage and answer for one's own behavior regardless of the influence and assessment of other people), readiness to take risks, social and professional activity, and an adequate perception of existence. The level of a person's willingness to take risks is a factor that determines the level of development of his psychological security. Generalized strong ideas that satisfy a person's needs, interests, intentions, goals, and plans are factors that determine his psychologically safe life. The analysis shows that the formation and development of psychological security is causally connected with the presence or manifestation of contradictions between the subject's values and the reflected characteristics of the real being.
Until now, many studies in psychology have been carried out on the problems of modeling a psychologically safe educational environment.
At the same time, it should not be forgotten that only psychologizing the environment, increasing the psychological and pedagogical competence of pedagogues and parents, without taking into account the individual characteristics and qualities of children, as well as their tendency to show psychological stability and tolerance, is positive in the development of the personality of a child who is not psychologically injured. results cannot be obtained.
Research on this problem draws attention to the issue of external factors that cause a child's vulnerability to psychological injuries. In such an approach, the target of psychological pedagogical influence will be "risk factors" that pose a psychological threat to the child's physical and mental health. Here, pedagogues, psychologists and parents should focus on identifying, understanding and reducing the pressure of such factors. It should also be recognized that this is an impossible attempt. Because it is impossible to classify all possible micro- and macro-factors that threaten the psychological safety of a person. On the other hand, full classification of risk factors is impossible due to the individuality and non-constantness of the person. In other words, the same situation is not only perceived differently by different people, but one person can evaluate the same situation as safe-neutral-dangerous at different times.
In this regard, there is a need to carefully study the individual psychological characteristics of the child, which cause a person to feel and demonstrate psychological security, regardless of the influencing factors.
In this approach, the child's psychological safety is reflected in his "specific pattern-model, at the same time, his ability to maintain stability in a psychologically traumatic environment, his resistance-immunity to destructive internal and external influences, feeling protected and unprotected in concrete life situations. is a characteristic".
In science, several main approaches to the formation of personal safety in the educational environment have been formed, among them representatives of the psychoanalytical approach, psychological safety of the person with the help of psychological protection mechanisms by eliminating the incompleteness complex. Scholar suggest to improve and correct the formed model of safe behavior .
Defense mechanisms are unconscious reactions that protect the individual from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt. An ego-protective tendency that hides or distorts impulses that threaten a person. The process of self-emotional assessment of a person is important to protect oneself from various disappointments, failures and extreme situations. Especially in the period of adolescence, it is necessary to take a serious look at this process. Taking this into account, it is necessary to empirically study the socio-psychological factors related to the balance between self-emotional assessment and psychological protection opportunities in adolescents and analyze its results based on conditionally accepted criteria. It is also worth noting that sometimes every teenager can in a certain sense "fail" to adequately evaluate his emotional nature and the possibilities of psychological protection that serve the effectiveness of his work. In our opinion, at the root of such "weakness" are emotional dissatisfaction, emotional discomfort, and inadequate emotional perceptions of oneself.
The study underlines the crucial need for heads of educational institutions, teachers, psychologists, class leaders, and parents to comprehend the impact of phobias on the psychological safety of adolescents and conduct educational interventions accordingly. Failure to do so can potentially undermine an individual's psychological defense mechanisms, especially in stressful situations. Phobias, depending upon their type, can exert multifarious negative effects on an individual's psychological safety. These effects encompass reduced tolerance to environmental stressors and traumatic episodes, hinderance in self-control, management of behavior and emotions, and the ability to maintain a steadfast life position against internal and external influences.
Furthermore, phobias can induce a sense of self-dissatisfaction, decrease a sense of control, impede the use of communicative skills in interpersonal interactions, and induce negative mental states characterized by restlessness and anxiety. When psychological safety serves as a metric of efficiency in a person's activities, phobias can significantly impair this efficiency. Therefore, the implications of this research highlight the necessity of additional studies to devise effective strategies to mitigate the influence of phobias on adolescents' psychological safety, thereby promoting their mental well-being and productivity in various life domains.
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