Vol 8 (2023): June (in progress)
Clinical Research

The Effect of Body Mass Index on Male Infertility and Reproductive Hormones

Hussain Kh.Kadhem
Al Batool Teaching Hospital, Department of Infertility, Iraq *
Lamiaa Saoud Abbod Al-Anbagi
Baquba Technical Institute, Middle Technical University (MTU), Turkey
Mohammed Ali Hussein
College of Basic Education, Diyala University, Iraq

(*) Corresponding Author
Picture in here are illustration from public domain image or provided by the author, as part of their works
Published May 23, 2023
  • Infertility,
  • Reproductive
How to Cite
Kh.Kadhem, H., Al-Anbagi, L. S. A., & Hussein, M. A. (2023). The Effect of Body Mass Index on Male Infertility and Reproductive Hormones. Academia Open, 8. https://doi.org/10.21070/acopen.8.2023.6374


In individuals without recognized risk factors for infertility, the goal of in this research to assess the organization comparing body mass index, variables in sperm, and levels of reproductive hormones.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. J. Boivin, L. Bunting, J. A. Collins, and K. G. Nygren, “International estimates of infertility prevalence and treatment-seeking: potential need and demand for infertility medical care,” Hum. Reprod., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1506–1512, 2007, doi: 10.1093/humrep/dem046.
  2. G. R. Dohle, G. M. Colpi, T. B. Hargreave, G. K. Papp, A. Jungwirth, and W. Weidner, “EAU guidelines on male infertility,” Eur. Urol., vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 703–711, 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2005.06.002.
  3. M. Ng et al., “Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.,” Lancet (London, England), vol. 384, no. 9945, pp. 766–781, Aug. 2014, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60460-8.
  4. N. Sermondade et al., “BMI in relation to sperm count: an updated systematic review and collaborative meta-analysis.,” Hum. Reprod. Update, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 221–231, 2013, doi: 10.1093/humupd/dms050.
  5. P. Fedorcsák et al., “Impact of overweight and underweight on assisted reproduction treatment.,” Hum. Reprod., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 2523–2528, Nov. 2004, doi: 10.1093/humrep/deh485.
  6. S. Helo et al., “A Randomized Prospective Double-Blind Comparison Trial of Clomiphene Citrate and Anastrozole in Raising Testosterone in Hypogonadal Infertile Men.,” J. Sex. Med., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1761–1769, Aug. 2015, doi: 10.1111/jsm.12944.
  7. X. Xu et al., “The Effect of Aromatase on the Reproductive Function of Obese Males.,” Horm. Metab. Res. = Horm. und Stoffwechselforsch. = Horm. Metab., vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 572–579, Aug. 2017, doi: 10.1055/s-0043-107835.
  8. S. on Obesity (1999: Geneva and W. H. Organization, “Obesity : preventing and managing the global epidemic : report of a WHO consultation.” World Health Organization, p. 252 p., 2000.
  9. W. H. Organization, “WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen.” World Health Organization, p. Previous editions had different title : WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and semen-cervical mucus interaction, 2010.
  10. S. Alshahrani, A.-F. Ahmed, A. H. Gabr, M. Abalhassan, and G. Ahmad, “The impact of body mass index on semen parameters in infertile men.,” Andrologia, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1125–1129, Dec. 2016, doi: 10.1111/and.12549.
  11. L. M. Davidson, K. Millar, C. Jones, M. Fatum, and K. Coward, “Deleterious effects of obesity upon the hormonal and molecular mechanisms controlling spermatogenesis and male fertility.,” Hum. Fertil. (Camb)., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 184–193, Sep. 2015, doi: 10.3109/14647273.2015.1070438.
  12. R. Sharma, K. R. Biedenharn, J. M. Fedor, and A. Agarwal, “Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility.,” Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol., vol. 11, p. 66, Jul. 2013, doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-11-66.
  13. K. K. Shukla, S. Chambial, S. Dwivedi, S. Misra, and P. Sharma, “Recent scenario of obesity and male fertility.,” Andrology, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 809–818, Nov. 2014, doi: 10.1111/andr.270.
  14. A. A. MacDonald, G. P. Herbison, M. Showell, and C. M. Farquhar, “The impact of body mass index on semen parameters and reproductive hormones in human males: a systematic review with meta-analysis.,” Hum. Reprod. Update, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 293–311, 2010, doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmp047.
  15. D. S. Colaci et al., “Men’s body mass index in relation to embryo quality and clinical outcomes in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization.,” Fertil. Steril., vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 1193–9.e1, Nov. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.07.1102.
  16. L. Loukil, H. Hadj Kacem, A. Bahloul, and H. Ayadi, “Relation between male obesity and male infertility in a Tunisian population,” Andrologia, vol. 47, 2014, doi: 10.1111/and.12257.
  17. M. L. Eisenberg, S. Kim, Z. Chen, R. Sundaram, E. F. Schisterman, and G. M. Buck Louis, “The relationship between male BMI and waist circumference on semen quality: data from the LIFE study.,” Hum. Reprod., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 193–200, Feb. 2014, doi: 10.1093/humrep/det428.
  18. A. O. Hammoud, N. Wilde, M. Gibson, A. Parks, D. T. Carrell, and A. W. Meikle, “Male obesity and alteration in sperm parameters.,” Fertil. Steril., vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 2222–2225, Dec. 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.10.011.
  19. A. O. Hammoud, M. Gibson, C. M. Peterson, A. W. Meikle, and D. T. Carrell, “Impact of male obesity on infertility: a critical review of the current literature.,” Fertil. Steril., vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 897–904, Oct. 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.08.026.
  20. E. R. M. Hofny et al., “Semen parameters and hormonal profile in obese fertile and infertile males,” Fertil. Steril., vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 581–584, 2010, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.03.085.
  21. J. E. Chavarro, T. L. Toth, D. L. Wright, J. D. Meeker, and R. Hauser, “Body mass index in relation to semen quality, sperm DNA integrity, and serum reproductive hormone levels among men attending an infertility clinic.,” Fertil. Steril., vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 2222–2231, May 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.01.100.
  22. S. J. Parekattil and A. Agarwal, Male infertility: Contemporary clinical approaches, andrology, art & antioxidants. 2012. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3335-4.
  23. M. Z. Keskin et al., “Investigation of the effect of body mass index (BMI) on semen parameters and male reproductive system hormones.,” Arch. Ital. di Urol. Androl. organo Uff. [di] Soc. Ital. di Ecogr. Urol. e Nefrol., vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 219–221, Oct. 2017, doi: 10.4081/aiua.2017.3.219.
  24. K. Ehala-Aleksejev and M. Punab, “Relationships between total testicular volume, reproductive parameters and surrogate measures of adiposity in men presenting for couple’s infertility.,” Andrologia, Dec. 2017, doi: 10.1111/and.12952.
  25. A. O. Hammoud, M. Gibson, C. M. Peterson, B. D. Hamilton, and D. T. Carrell, “Obesity and male reproductive potential.,” J. Androl., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 619–626, 2006, doi: 10.2164/jandrol.106.000125.
  26. A. Vermeulen, J. M. Kaufman, J. P. Deslypere, and G. Thomas, “Attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse amplitude but normal LH pulse frequency, and its relation to plasma androgens in hypogonadism of obese men.,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 1140–1146, May 1993, doi: 10.1210/jcem.76.5.8496304.
  27. J. B. Kerr, M. Millar, S. Maddocks, and R. M. Sharpe, “Stage-dependent changes in spermatogenesis and Sertoli cells in relation to the onset of spermatogenic failure following withdrawal of testosterone.,” Anat. Rec., vol. 235, no. 4, pp. 547–559, Apr. 1993, doi: 10.1002/ar.1092350407.