This article aims to investigate the psychological features of high school students' readiness for family life by analyzing the results of the "Role Expectations and Claims in Marriage" (ROP) method developed by A.N. Volkova. The study shows that the well-being of the family largely depends on the degree of understanding by the spouses of their family roles, upon which relationships are built. The analysis of the ROP method results reveals that high school students have a significant gap in their understanding of family roles and expectations, which might affect their readiness for family life. The implications of this study highlight the importance of preparing high school students for family life by developing their understanding of family roles, which could lead to better family relationships and ultimately improve the well-being of the family as a whole.
Keywords: psychology, family roles, high school students, readiness, ROP method.
A strong, healthy family is the key to a healthy society and a strong state . The family is also a foundation that needs to be laid firmly.
The foundations of the foundations of the family is mutual understanding, respect. The sage Confucius saw in the family a natural way of self-realization of the individual. He considered the family, the routine of family life, the beginning of all virtues. Today it is very important to form a healthy psychological climate in the family. Without love, without the warmth of family relationships, it is impossible to give birth and raise a harmonious personality. It is in the family that the personality is born and formed.
The birth of healthy children and their happy life depends on the attitude of parents to each other, on their love, and not on external conditions. The role of father and mother is huge, and even more so of grandparents. The role of the father in the family largely depends on the mother.
Children form their relationship to their father mainly through the mother's relationship to him. Therefore, her subtle and wise behavior, the manifestation of respect and love for her husband, for the father of her children are so necessary .
Such feelings, thoughts, words will later pay off, the happy fate of the children and their attitude towards their parents. Therefore, society is interested in preparing the younger generation for the creation of a family.
The readiness of the younger generation for family life is the most important condition for the well-being of the family. For this, according to psychologists, it assumes the presence of the following personal qualities :
1. Readiness for interpersonal communication and cooperation.
2. The ability to selflessness in relation to a partner.
3. The presence of qualities associated with penetration into the inner world of a person - empathy.
4. High aesthetic culture of feelings and behavior of the individual.
5. The ability to resolve conflicts in a constructive way, the ability to self-regulate their own psyche and behavior.
World experience shows that the problem of preparing young people for families is included in the school curriculum. In particular, in Sweden since 1942, in the Czech Republic and Slovakia since 1960, in Japan, starting from primary education, courses “Preparation for family life” have been conducted, and in Poland since 1973 there have been special courses “Adaptation to the family”.
The stability of marriage and family relations in the modern world is of particular importance, since today's life, with its stresses and economic difficulties, does not contribute to stability and harmony in marital relations, there is a trend of divorce. One third of all marriages are not viable. A large number of divorces is observed in young families . The issue of strengthening marriage and improving the family life of the population is of great national importance. The problem of divorce has led many psychologists, educators, and sociologists to study and consider the problem of young people's readiness for future family and marriage relations .
In this regard, the purpose of our work is to study the psychological characteristics of the readiness for marriage of the pupils of the houses of Mercy and adolescents from complete families. For this, 120 people (35 pupils of houses of Mercy and 85 adolescents from complete families) aged 15-16 years old, students of grade 9 were involved as an empirical object of research.
At the same time, we consider psychological readiness for marriage through the prism of such personal characteristics as role expectations and claims in marriage. The study of ideas about marriage and family relations allows, to a certain extent, to analyze the behavior of adolescents in the distribution of roles, functions and responsibilities in the family, in marriage. In order to determine this knowledge in adolescents, we used the method of Volkova A.N. "Role expectations and claims in marriage" (ROP) . The results obtained were analyzed according to the following 5 scales: household scale, parental-educational scale, social activity scale, emotional-psychotherapeutic scale and external attractiveness scale.
In the group of respondents from complete families, there is an expectation that almost all functions and duties from a partner will be performed: household - 1.92; parent-educational - 2.01; scale of social activity - 2.26; emotional-psychotherapeutic scale - 2.51 and scale of external attractiveness - 2.44.
The average value of the respondents from the "House of Mercy": household - 2.1; parent-educational - 2.11; scale of social activity - 2.01; emotional-psychotherapeutic scale - 2.18 and scale of external attractiveness - 2.06.
According to the results, it can be noted that the respondents from the houses of Mercy have more pronounced values related to the family, there is an active parental position - the average value is 2.11.
According to the scale of social activity, the participants of group 1 (respondents from "complete families"), the professional, social activity of the partner is significant, and for the representatives of group 2 (respondents from the "House of Mercy") - professional activity, career development of the partner is less significant. Perhaps this can be explained by the fact that adolescents from group 2 - "the house of Mercy" lived in a closed space and did not observe the career growth of their caregivers. Many educators worked with them until they reached retirement age, another educator came in their place, and the vicious circle continued.
According to the emotional-psychotherapeutic scale, high rates are observed in the group of participants from “complete families”. Adolescents from this group perceive marriage as an environment conducive to psychological relaxation, and for the group from the “House of Mercy”, the role of an emotional leader is shifted to a partner. Perhaps this suggests that adolescents grew up outside the family and they have not developed the experience of communication and functioning in the family.
Considering the results of the last scale of the questionnaire, it can be assumed that for adolescents from group 1 - “complete families”, the scale of the partner’s external attractiveness turned out to be significant, they attach importance to the appearance of their partner, and do not leave their own appearance without attention. According to the same scale, respondents from group 2 - "the house of Mercy" have low indicators, perhaps because adolescents from this group pay more attention to the inner world of their partner than to appearance. It can also be explained by the fact that adolescents from group 2 grew up under the care of the state and many of them had the same clothes, they did not have the right to choose their own clothes.
Thus, the results obtained by the method of A.N. Volkova "Role Expectations and Claims in Marriage" (ROP) show the differences between adolescents brought up in Mercy houses and in complete families. Differences in adolescents from complete families and pupils of houses of Mercy were observed in all areas. At the same time, adolescents living with their parents showed high results on the following scales: social activity, emotional-psychotherapeutic and external attractiveness. And the teenagers from the houses of Mercy scored high on the household and parent-educational scales. We see the reason for this in the fact that social living conditions have an impact on adolescents, on their perception.