This article examines the development of military tourism and its influence on socio-economic development globally, with a focus on the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries and Uzbekistan. Employing a historical approach, the study investigates the key prerequisites for the emergence of military tourism, while giving special attention to Uzbekistan's prospects in this sector. A comprehensive mechanism for the development of military tourism is proposed, highlighting the identified problematic aspects and factors hindering its growth. The study also delves into the underlying reasons behind the growing popularity of military tourism in contemporary society. The article concludes by presenting recommendations for fostering the advancement of military tourism, thereby offering valuable insights for policymakers, researchers, and practitioners involved in the tourism industry.
- Historical approach: Analyzing the historical context and factors that have contributed to the development of military tourism.
- Development in Uzbekistan: Examining the specific case of Uzbekistan and exploring its potential for military tourism.
- Implications for socio-economic development: Investigating the impact of military tourism on the socio-economic growth of countries and regions.
Keywords: Military tourism, Socio-economic development, Prerequisites, Prospects, Uzbekistan
Currently, in some developed and developing countries, military tourism is becoming a rapidly developing branch of the tourist industry. The unique features of the formation and development of military tourism are mainly characterized by its inextricable dependence on state bodies, such as the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Culture, and the activities of public organizations of the country.
The role of tourism in human activities, family living conditions and culture, as well as on the path to physical development P.Ye. Passechniy, V.G. Fadeyev (1980), V.P. Morgunov (1978), I.P. Milonov (1969), K.I. Vakhliyev (1983), R. Abdumalikov, T. Kholdorov (1988) have been thoroughly studied by a number of scientists and specialists. According to them, trade and cultural relations between states and peoples developed widely in the 6th century BC. Accordingly, it is certain that the first travelers were persons connected with trade. It is known from history that trade between the ancient Greek and Arab states was particularly developed. "Father of history" Herodotus is one of the first tourists. He told about his travels in his historical works as early as 459 AD. Also, the contribution of the ancient Greeks to the formation and development of travel is huge. Because they traveled far and wide to the city of Olympus to watch the ancient Olympic Games. In addition, they traveled through the mountains and valleys in search of "magical medicine" to restore health. According to historical sources, even Alexander the Great came to Central Asia in search of "magical water" that prolongs life and rejuvenates a person.
Aristotle, Demokratus, Quintilmon and other famous philosophers, talking about education in their works, emphasized the need for people to be surrounded by beautiful nature and to travel. 
There are several approaches to defining the concept of "military tourism". If we look at the history, military tourism can be found in the work of the Russian scientist G. A. Gumilev "theoretical and practical aspects of festival tourism in the context of military-historical events", although he has too much detailed information. Under military tourism, the author defines "tourism related to visits to battles and wars, monuments, graves, local history museums, museums of military glory, opened historical sites, as well as participation in military exercises, maneuvers, shootings, competitions, festivals, etc. opportunity to visit existing military facilities for educational and leisure activities within the framework of excursion programs in the military direction related to In our opinion, "military tourism" is travel to war zones for sightseeing and conflict. 
It should be noted that it would not be correct to talk about military tourism as a completely new phenomenon in tourism. This type of tourism is developing primarily in countries with a long history of armed forces and stable military traditions. It is believed that this military tourism began in the United States of America in the middle of the 19th century when Thomas Cook organized tours for British tourists at the sites of military operations between the North and the South during the Civil War. 
The mass nature of military tourism has emerged only today. Tour operators from France, Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland and a number of other European countries were among the first to develop this type of tourism. Of particular interest to tourists in these countries are the castles that have begun to be used as tourist attractions. Among the countries of the independent commonwealth (CIS) countries, Ukraine is one of the first to pay special attention to the development of military tourism. However, the projects aimed to the development of Ukrainian military tourism have some shortcomings. The most important shortcoming of these is the price of military tourism products and services, i.e. their cost. Thus, military tourism covered only the elite strata. For example, a tourist had to pay 300 US dollars for shooting from a tank, and twelve thousand dollars for an hour's flight in a MiG plane as a co-pilot. 
Today, interest in military tourism is becoming a rapidly developing trend in almost all CIS countries.
Why is interest in military tourism growing in developed society?
The reason for this is simple: people want to know their past, honor, traditions, ancestors and family history, to be closer to their Motherland and to strengthen patriotism in the younger generation. Another purpose of visiting the places of military glory is to understand the negative consequences of war and prevent destructive events in the future. Military tourism is considered exciting and interesting for all ages, nationalities and peoples. Because the more each people, each country learns about its history and the battles for independence in history, then the love for the motherland will increase and the feelings of patriotism will start to grow.
Tourism has existed in Central Asia since ancient times. Many historical sources and folklore tell us about our ancient ancestors' walks on the shores of rivers and lakes, in deserts, climbing mountains, and hunting.
Therefore, tourism in Central Asia has been developing and improving since ancient times. After Uzbekistan gained independence, a lot of work is being done to develop tourism. 
It should be noted that the types of military tourism have not yet been fully defined. In our opinion, military tourism includes the following directions:
- military-historical tourism (visit to places of former wars);
- military sports tourism (tank biathlon, military sports games);
- military music tourism (military music festivals of armed forces orchestras);
- military-extreme and military-adventure tourism (flights in combat aircraft, combat equipment, travel to combat zones);
- military-club tourism (associations in military-historical clubs and travel to places of historical battles);
- military educational tourism (direct participation in military training and combat life programs in the military unit, regardless of the gender and age of tourists).
In today's pandemic conditions, issues such as social and economic protection of the population, ensuring the security of the state have taken place among the priority issues. It should be noted that tourism, including military tourism, can help solve these issues.
In the process of adapting to new conditions, the directions of the development of military tourism are also changing to a certain extent. In this type of tourism, sports tourism and its extreme and active directions are rapidly developing.
Many people are passionate about enjoying the beauty of the underwater world, mountaineering, skiing and parachuting.
There is a personnel problem in the development of these tourist services in our republic. For example, skydiving has become very popular, but a coach with special training is required. And in the military field there are specialists with such training.
What types of extreme tourism can be developed in Uzbekistan?
Although skydiving started almost 70 years ago, it has been used as a form of public recreation for 15 years. Several variants of it are used now. In particular, such types as skysurfing and group acrobatics have risen to the level of fashion. Large desert zones, mountain slopes, and open basins in Uzbekistan create opportunities for parachute jumping. 
Rafting is a descent along a mountain river in canoes or special rafts, and it is considered one of the most popular and safe sports even for the youngest tourists.
Speleology is an activity in which people organize trips to caves in their spare time. At the same time, speleology is also the "science of caves". Speleology requires not only physical, but also technical and psychological preparation.
X races are extreme tourists who join teams and set a goal of participating in competitions over distances of 300-400 kilometers using their skills. This is called multisport, or extreme adventure racing. More than 200 extreme races are organized in the West every year.
Mountaineering is the most extreme form of recreation. Today, mountaineering represents a whole industry that is developing and gaining popularity. Usually, the best time for mountaineering is summer, when it is possible to reach the destination with minimal losses. However, those with keen senses will be ready to destroy the peaks even in winter. Even climbing at least local artificial peaks is an interesting recreation for those who want to engage in mountaineering.
Flying in air balloons is an extreme type of recreation that is considered news for our country, and is usually considered possible for an ordinary person during various festivals. The duration of the flight depends on the wind speed, and it is up to 20-30 km in average wind speed. Of course, extreme tourism is developing gradually.
Extreme tourism is one of the most dangerous types of tourism, and its purpose is to feel the danger. Risk factors in extreme tourism are classified according to their nature as follows:
- injuries - getting injured as a result of various rock, snow, avalanches;
- Impact of the environment - getting injured under the influence of adverse weather conditions; Possibility of fire;
- Biological effects - the entry of poisonous microorganisms into the human body as a result of bites and stings of animals, poisonous insects, carriers of infection;
- Psycho-physical burdens - increase of physical, nervous and mental load on tourists in difficult and dangerous parts of the route;
- Danger of ultraviolet and radiation exposure;
- Chemical-toxic effect;
- Special factors - occurrence of natural and man-made disasters during the route, poor condition of facilities, service personnel, low level of training of instructors, insufficient supply of information, etc.
The control of preparation for extreme tourism must be carried out before the beginning of the tourist season and the current inspection of special state bodies must be carried out. It is necessary to improve the system of training instructors for extreme tourism in Uzbekistan. There are many opportunities for organizing extreme tourism routes in Uzbekistan, and the inclusion of hunting tourism in them creates uniqueness. This is one of the factors of tourism development.
If we look at the world experience, especially in the USA, tourism mechanisms are widely used to strengthen young people's physical health, mental development, and education in the spirit of patriotism. That is why the school of militarized "Scouts" is among them. Retired soldiers are widely involved in this activity and youth tourism is being developed.
Youth tourism is a way of life of a developed social society. Among the young people of the world, there is an idea that they should travel the world, learn life lessons, and learn the lifestyle of the people of other countries until they are 25 years old, have a family, have children.
Taking into account the specific aspects of youth tourism, the following requirements can be included in its scope of activity:
- ability to adapt quickly to the changing needs of young people (entertainment programs, music, etc.);
- to be able to reduce prices without changing the quality;
- providing security for mixed groups (women and men).
Improvement of mechanisms for the development of military tourism in Uzbekistan
The main issues in the development of tourism in Uzbekistan, including military tourism, are as follows:
- ensuring the safety of tourists;
- development of mechanisms for the development of military tourism;
- allocation of areas intended for the development of military recreation and development of mechanisms for their development;
- improvement of military tourism management mechanisms.
As for ensuring the safety of tourists, it should be said that two forms of outbound and inbound tourism are distinguished in international tourism according to the direction of the flow of travelers. Domestic tourism, unlike international tourism, involves staying outside the country's borders and does not always require tourist formalities. It is relatively easy to organize such trips.
The national currency is used in everyday life by the means of exchange, and the mother tongue is used as a means of communication. According to experts, the share of domestic tourism in all tourist trips is 80-90%. Although there are significant differences, domestic and international forms of tourism are interconnected. It helps to develop new recreational resources and regions, and to train specialists. According to the data, 20 percent of the population in developed countries travel at least twice a year, and 10 percent of the population travel three or more times. One of the main points of interest to travelers during a tourist trip is their safety. When talking about tourism security, it should be emphasized that it is a broad, complex and multifaceted concept.
First of all, it is impossible not to reduce security measures in tourism, to treat them as a primitive type of service. Tourist firms mainly organize "security" service in hotels, and the management of this service by retired military personnel serves as the main motivation to bring this service to much higher quality indicators.
Some tourist organizations use the activities of companies providing special security services. These companies even offer individual services to each tourist.
Experts divide high-level risks into several categories:
1. Machines, mechanisms, technological processes, energy and other equipment created by people to satisfy their material and spiritual needs;
2. Extraordinary forces of nature - the occurrence of disasters such as fires, earthquakes, typhoons that are not related to human wishes;
3. Subjects contained in the approved products - radioactive, explosive, toxic substances;
4. Activity and inactivity of natural persons to the extent of causing real damage to human life and health, material and spiritual wealth, for example, using a weapon or providing service in a damaged vehicle.
In this sense, the organization of "tourism police" in the regions of providing tourist services in Uzbekistan was appropriate. When considering the issue of tourism safety, it is appropriate to point out that the aspect that helps prevent the tourist from falling into emergency situations is the need to observe simple rules of behavior. During a tourist trip, it is necessary not only to strictly observe the laws, but also to respect local traditions and customs. According to the recommendation of the International Tourism Organization, it would be useful to familiarize yourself with such customs before the trip. These rules can cover many things, from the culture of dress to the rules of daily life. For example, it is common for every tourist to use a photo-video camera. In most Arab and African countries, administrative buildings, people wearing special uniforms, policemen, and especially Photographing women is prohibited. That's why it's safer to ask if you can take a picture quietly and then do it. Types and quality of food during a tourist trip is a factor of a safe trip. In most cases, food is offered in the form of a "buffet table". 
In this type of presentation, it is necessary to follow a few simple rules:
- One should not hastily mix different types of food on the plate like a very hungry person.
- It is advisable to digest and consume food without haste.
- The tourist is obliged to eat all the food on his plate.
- The presence of half-eaten food left in the dish indicates the general lack of culture of the tourist, and also offends other visitors to the restaurant and the service staff. Tourists in hot countries definitely want to taste fresh fruits. More than 500 types of edible fruits are offered in the markets of these regions.
When buying exotic fruits, it is recommended to follow a number of rules:
- It is better not to buy unfamiliar fruits;
- Do not buy blackened and crushed fruits, close to them;
- Fruits should be washed in running water for at least three minutes and then consumed;
- Exotic fruits, especially peeled ones, cannot be kept for more than two days even in the refrigerator, microbes are resistant even to cold in warm places;
- It is necessary to eat each exotic fruit only after having complete knowledge about it. It is known from experience that one well-known journalist suffered from allergies for a long time after eating mango fruit with the skin instead of green plums. Travelers, including drivers and pedestrians, should exercise extreme caution on the road.
There are some simple practical rules that tourists should follow in order to avoid traffic accidents:
- Issuing an insurance policy that helps to cover the costs of medical services in case of an accident;
- having national and international driver's licenses;
- to have regulatory and legal information regulating the activity;
- be careful of wild animals;
- Always use a seat belt when driving a car.
Knowing about the safety rules mentioned above and applying them in practice is one of the most important factors in tourist travel.
Improvement of military tourism management mechanisms.
The mechanism of management of tourist zones affects its development. Therefore, the mechanism of effective operation of tourist zones is an undoubted factor of increasing the level of socio-economic development and recurrence of such an acute problem as unemployment. Therefore, in the development of the mechanism of development of tourist zones, first of all, relying on tourist trips and specific features of tourist services that can be developed in a certain area, that is, tourist activities, requires a special choice.
An effective mechanism of management of the tourist zone can serve as an economic catalyst, in its development, one of the strategic directions of tourism development can be chosen in more backward regions. These cause:
- Increase in the rate of economic development;
- Recovery of regional economy from depression;
- Providing a sustainable regional development vector;
It should also be remembered that the regions lagging behind in development may not correspond to the administrative territorial units of the state. It is possible to distinguish a tourism and recreation region and all initial units or several neighboring regions. The signs of backwardness of the region in which the tourist zone is located are often characteristic of the entire region. This allows us to assume that for the spatial development of the region, not the entire region, but a special purpose management is needed. In some cases of the tourist zone, the targeted approach may not even apply to the entire tourist zone, but only to its problematic part.
Based on the above analysis, the following proposals were developed.
- work on new projects with foreign Armed Forces;
- development of organizing mechanisms for "ARMY GAMES" and other such competitions to be held in the coming years
- to increase attention to our ancestors, to those who fought for the homeland, to strengthen propaganda in this direction.
- Preparation of special maps and guides related to the military tourism potential of Uzbekistan in cooperation with tourism and military experts operating in Uzbekistan.
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