This scientific article explores the multifaceted development of literacy skills, focusing on reading and written speech, among primary school students in Uzbekistan. The study aims to strengthen and deepen students' knowledge and understanding of written texts, while meeting the demands of literacy requirements within the context of Uzbek capabilities. Through a systematic approach, the research employed various methods to assess the effectiveness of literacy interventions. The results revealed significant improvements in students' reading comprehension, written expression, and overall knowledge acquisition. Furthermore, the implications of this study highlight the importance of implementing comprehensive literacy strategies to optimize students' learning outcomes and promote their successful engagement in written communication. This research provides valuable insights for educational policymakers, curriculum designers, and educators seeking to enhance literacy education in similar contexts.
Comprehensive approach: This study adopts a comprehensive approach to literacy development, encompassing both reading and written speech skills among primary school students.
Knowledge acquisition: The research focuses on strengthening and deepening students' knowledge and absorption of written texts, emphasizing the importance of increasing their knowledge and understanding of written materials.
Implications for Uzbek capabilities: The study explores the alignment of literacy demands with Uzbek capabilities, highlighting the significance of rational and contextually appropriate approaches to literacy education.
Keywords: literacy development, primary school students, reading, written speech, Uzbekistan.
Primary education serves as a foundation in creating a creative person who will raise the future of Uzbekistan to the level of a great country. The main goal of a primary school teacher is to ensure that students are educated and have a wide range of thinking. It is to analyze their data and make it widely used. The skills of the teacher, his skillful application of modern technologies to the educational process, the skillful use of advanced pedagogical experiences, and the use of new methods of teaching are very important in the primary classes, where the child's mind and thinking are being formed.
In our country, special attention is paid to the free education of schoolchildren, to their education, and to the training of competitive personnel in the rapidly changing times. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Sh. Mirziyoyev, cares enough for the future generation to become educated, intelligent and highly spiritual. It is no exaggeration to say that the President of our country presents textbooks and educational tools to the first graders every year in the new academic year.
Determining the priorities for the systematic reform of general secondary and extracurricular education in the Republic of Uzbekistan, raising the moral, moral and intellectual development of the young generation to a new level in terms of quality, education PF-134 of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated May 11, 2022 "On approval of the national program for the development of public education in 2022-2026" in order to introduce innovative forms and methods of education Forming the knowledge and skills of schoolchildren, educating them in the spirit of loyalty to national and universal values, increasing the prestige of the teaching profession and the quality of pedagogues, improving textbooks and educational methodical complexes based on the requirements of the time, public education It is planned to establish modern models of institutions that meet international standards.
Also, in accordance with the state program for the implementation of the Development Strategy of New Uzbekistan for the period of 2022-2026 in the "Year of Honoring Human Value and Active Neighborhood", the national program for the development of public education in 2022-2026 approval, the full implementation of the National Curriculum developed on the basis of advanced international experiences in school education and the implementation of modern textbooks created by local and foreign authors, increasing the prestige of the teaching profession in society, creating favorable social conditions for pedagogues and encouraging their work, increasing the responsibility of teachers in providing education and upbringing to young people, increasing their demand for continuous professional development, forming a national personnel reserve for general secondary educational institutions, the director of an advanced school and an exemplary high school development of the teacher's criteria and evaluation of the performance of the leader and pedagogue based on them, general secondary systematic organization of spiritual and educational work in educational institutions, establishment of continuous monitoring, evaluation and forecasting mechanisms in this direction, the role of the family, especially parents, in child education The fact that tasks such as increasing the number of students, organizing students' free time in a meaningful way, and improving the system of directing them to professions have been defined as the main directions of the program also indicate that all opportunities are being created for school education and students today.
Also, the Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated September 5, 2018 "On additional measures to improve the public education management system" No. PF-5538 it is assumed that the main part of the important tasks in the education of students will be carried out through the textbooks of the new generation. The purpose of elementary school mother tongue and reading literacy classes, especially classes held in the first grade, is to develop students' ability to read consciously, correctly, fluently, quickly and expressively.
The mother tongue and reading literacy classes play a very important role in the solid reading of the knowledge given in mathematics, natural science, education and other subjects, because only if the child reads correctly, consciously and fluently, the content of the text is well understood. understands. There are four main components of a mother tongue and reading literacy lesson that are closely related to each other. They are: conscious reading, expressive reading, accurate reading and speed reading. Among these parts, conscious reading takes the leading place. In the process of conscious reading, students should be able to achieve the following: be able to tell the original and figurative meanings of the words they read, the meaning of each sentence, be able to briefly describe the content of the section, be able to understand the meaning of the text they should be able to explain the content of the text, express their attitude towards what they read. In order to develop expressive reading skills in the student, it is necessary to teach him to read effectively in an average voice, observing the meaning of what he reads, paying attention to the stops, and so on. is required. In order to develop the correct reading skills, it is necessary to read without haste, without changing the position of letters, and to fully observe the rules of orthography.
In order to increase the speed of reading, the conscious reading of students is of great importance. Mindful reading is reading a text with complete and clear understanding. Activities related to conscious reading teach students to deeply understand the content of the text being read, to think logically, and to expand their thoughts and skills. In order to improve the skill of conscious reading, questions and tasks are given at the end of the textbook texts. These questions and tasks help the students to retell the content of the text and to answer the teacher's questions independently and to make creative statements based on their life experiences. it will Students are gradually taught to be able to divide the text into parts, put a suitable title on it, draw pictures that reveal the content of each part, and find questions. First, work is carried out with texts of small size and simple content, and then with large size and more complex content.
One of the tools that helps to make reading more conscious is to read correctly. When reading, without making mistakes, without breaking words, without omitting or replacing sounds and syllables, correctly pronouncing the last syllables, i.e. suffixes, following the rules of orthography. provides accurate reading. Formation of correct reading skills is carried out in the whole process of study. Correct and fast reading skills are formed only if reading is conscious. In the process of reading, teaching children to constantly monitor themselves, creating feelings of striving to read without mistakes, quickly and correctly, especially in first grade reading classes, is of particular importance.
Reading speed depends on conscious, fluent reading. Increasing reading speed is achieved by reading syllable by syllable outside the text of multisyllabic and difficult-to-spell words. Increase reading speed by practicing reading words and sentences written in printed and written letters aloud, reading in chorus, reading internally, reading texts in roles. provided with li. The more the child reads, the faster the reading speed will increase. The knowledge given in the reading lesson is deepened by making the child read more books outside the classroom. In order to increase the reading speed of students, it is appropriate if the following activities are carried out during the lesson. Before the start of the lesson, the teacher writes some sentences and words from today's text on the blackboard and temporarily closes it. Students open their books and look at today's reading text and try to quickly find the word or gao written on the board in the text. Cards with questions or assignments written on them are distributed to the desks.
With the permission of the teacher, the children read the questions and tasks written on the cards and look for the appropriate answer to this question and task in the text. Conducting the "Quick Reading Competition" gives children special pleasure. It is said that every child should start reading the text at the same time and finish reading the text at a certain time. The children who read first are marked and sit down to prepare to retell what they have read. The winners of the competition will be awarded with a star. Expressive reading means reading with the correct pronunciation of words, understanding the content of the work, the feelings expressed in the work, the inner experiences of the characters, and the mental mood. Children are impressionable. The teacher narrates the work with emotion, achieves a deep impact on the children, and in some cases manages to keep it well in their memory, the content of the work and the work of the participants in it seem like a rule of life for them. In order for the content of the work to be fully understood by the students, the teacher himself must carefully prepare to read it expressively and tell a story. Expressive reading is an indicator of conscious reading, because a student who is able to understand the meaning of the text will definitely acquire expressive reading skills. Mindful reading helps to develop and strengthen expressive reading skills.
As conscious, accurate, and fluent reading skills are developed, effective reading skills also grow. Effective reading serves to arouse feelings in the student, to imagine events, and to give aesthetic pleasure. The content and skill of the work carried out in expressive reading is explained by 4 main conditions: students need to understand well what to tell (what idea, what content to express) based on what they read; students should have a lively and persuasive attitude to what they read in the work; a literary work requires students to read with a certain goal, their inclination to express the content (idea, example, description of nature); listeners are required to understand the thoughts of the reader reading the text; All this helps to develop expressive reading.
In addition to the development of reading literacy of primary school students, the main purpose of the lessons on the culture of written speech and its formation is to strengthen and deepen the knowledge acquired by students in the field of mother tongue, written speech, and to form and develop written speech in students. It is to inculcate the methods and methods in their minds, to ensure that literacy is at the required level, and to use the opportunities of the Uzbek language correctly and rationally.
Introducing new teaching methods required of today's teachers, thoroughly inculcating the rules of grammar, spelling, and pronunciation in students, making creative works, written speech meaningful and colorful, being able to give a reasoned and consistent opinion, creative written works ( writing skills and skills (writing, essay, statement) are the main tasks envisaged in our article.
- Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. PF-134 of May 11, 2022 on the approval of the national program for the development of public education in 2022-2026.
- Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On Education" as amended September 23, 2020.
- Assessment of reading literacy of primary school students in international studies (Methodological manual for primary school teachers, methodologists and experts in the field). National Center for the Implementation of International Research on the Evaluation of the Quality of Education under the Education Inspectorate. Tashkent, 2019, 92 pages. Page 16.
- Mother tongue and reading literacy [Text]: methodical guide for 1st grade teachers / I. Azimova [et al.]. - Tashkent: Republican Education Center, 2021. - 128 p.
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