Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer
DOI: 10.21070/acopen.7.2022.5713

Scope of Questionnaires in the Pirls 2021 Study

Ruang Lingkup Kuesioner Dalam Studi Pirls 2021

Jizzakh State Pedagogical University

(*) Corresponding Author

Living environment Student learning PIRLS 2021 Factors Academic achievements


This scientific article explores the relationship between the living environment and various factors with student learning based on the findings of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) conducted in 2021. The study aims to investigate the influence of the living environment and other relevant aspects on students' academic achievements. The research employed a comprehensive questionnaire survey as the primary method to collect data from a diverse sample of students across different countries. The results demonstrate a significant correlation between the living environment and students' learning outcomes, highlighting the crucial role played by factors such as household socio-economic status, parental involvement, access to educational resources, and school environment. The implications of these findings underscore the importance of creating conducive living conditions and providing adequate support systems for students to maximize their learning potential. This research provides valuable insights for policymakers, educators, and stakeholders to design evidence-based interventions and policies aimed at enhancing student learning outcomes on a global scale. 


  • The study examines the impact of the living environment and various factors on student learning based on PIRLS 2021 data.
  • Results highlight a significant correlation between the living environment and students' academic achievements, emphasizing the role of socio-economic status, parental involvement, access to educational resources, and school environment.
  • Findings have implications for policymakers, educators, and stakeholders in designing interventions and policies to enhance student learning outcomes globally.

Keywords: Living environment, Student learning, PIRLS 2021, Factors, Academic achievements


Along with assessing elementary students' reading comprehension, the PIRLS does a great job of gathering information about the home and school environments in which students learn to read. Decades of educational research, including four PIRLS assessment cycles, show that the extent of student learning opportunities and the learning environment has a significant impact on their learning, provides more opportunities for them to achieve high performance, and creates a supportive environment.


Each of the PIRLS studies conducted to date (2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016) have collected a wealth of data on students' development of reading comprehension skills in and out of school, and students' learning. the high level of assessment of the level of mastery served as the basis for conducting research on how to improve their education. Taking into account the results of the PIRLS study, which is currently being conducted, it can be said that from the changes in student achievement indicators, the reforms or practical activities carried out in the field of education will give results or not. serves as convincing evidence. As observed in previous studies, the goal of the PIRLS 2021 international study is to form the existing research base and the results of the PIRLS international study serve to raise the level of students' mastery in the field of education. is to provide more practical assistance to officials and professionals. This includes high-level plans such as continuing to collect data to maintain and expand the scope of the field's directions, but, at the same time, to "keep up with the times" and re-engineer the research. requires the discovery of new aspects and the introduction of relevant reforms. The survey scope of the PIRLS 2021 survey summarizes the data collected as a result of the PIRLS 2021 surveys by providing a brief rationale. This scope is based on several factors that have a broad influence on students' reading comprehension levels: (home environment), school environment, factors related to the classroom environment, and students themselves. characteristics and unique including national factors. In line with previous evaluation programs, the PIRLS 2021 international survey is diverse educational processes of countries, parents and guardians of students, school principals and of students by conducting questionnaires related to the teachers teaching them information about the necessary factors for their learning has been collected. And the students themselves fill out a questionnaire. Students live through the results of these four types of questionnaires valuable information was collected about the conditions, the conditions created in the school and the classroom. Regarding specific national factors, the PIRLS 2021 international study is each participating country each expressing their students' approaches to learning skills updates the PIRLS encyclopedia published in the course of research. The former as in studies, representatives of each participating country are selected PIRLS 2021 international helped to compile the contents of the research encyclopedia. They are leading in education at the national level they fill out questionnaires about ongoing reforms and the country's curriculum and education contributed to the encyclopedia describing the practical training.


The four PIRLS 2021 questionnaires that provide information about each student's level of reading comprehension are detailed below.

• A home survey called the Student Learning Survey will be administered to the parent or guardian of each student participating in the PIRLS 2021 data collection process. This short 10-15 minute questionnaire is about home-related factors such as language spoken at home, parents' schooling activities and attitudes towards schooling, parents' level of education and occupation. contains data. The questionnaire also collects information about the student's childhood education, early literacy, numeracy, and reading comprehension level when the student starts general secondary school.

• Teacher questionnaires filled out by teachers who teach reading to students include characteristics of the classroom (educational process), time allotted for reading, and their instructional approaches. information about the factors related to the educational process related to the orientation of education is collected. The questionnaire also asks questions about the teacher's personality, such as the teacher's satisfaction with his profession and current professional activity. It took 35 minutes to fill out the questionnaire.

• A school questionnaire completed by the principal of each participating school included student demographics, school environment, and school questions about the school, such as the facilities and technological tools that have been created, will be asked. It took about 30 minutes to complete the questionnaire.

• After completing the tasks to assess students' reading comprehension, a student questionnaire filled out by all participating students was used to assess the books and other resources available at home for students to study, and the students' learning at school. Information was collected on factors related to the student's general condition, including their adjustment to the school environment or whether or not they were bullied by other students and their educational orientation. Also, students are asked questions about their way of studying outside of school and their attitude towards studying. They will have up to 30 minutes to fill out this questionnaire. In order to shed light on the conditions created in the educational process for students to study, the PIRLS international study of the level of learning of primary school students in the subject of reading in the participating countries, as well as the results observed in each of the conducted research processes. focused on relevant and modifiable characteristics of school- and home-related factors that can be used to interpret change.

By highlighting the conditions created in the educational process for students to study primary school in the countries participating in the PIRLS international study the level of mastery of students in the subject of reading and each conducted research with school and home that can be used to interpret the observed changes in the processes attention was paid to relevant and variable characteristics of related factors. Believably generalize the information obtained as a result of surveys PIRLS international survey for the purpose of creating a series of questions on interesting topics and asked questions start the practice of summarizing the answers in the form of a general scale rather than publishing them one by one put This practice uses response-to-task theory (IRT) in constructing outcome scales. using the introduced PIRLS 2021 evaluation study and initial evaluation processes formed as a result. The scales introduced in the PIRLS study are parent-child first student learning, such as literacy activities and their safety at school evaluates the factors that have a positive effect on its indicators. PIRLS introduced in 2016 from the study to the PIRLS 2021 study, the assessment nature of the questionnaire scales and a number of works were carried out to improve its structural structure.


For elementary school students, these research tests are gaining importance. It is manifested in the knowledge of their reading literacy and in the test processes of students with students of foreign countries. of students in the PIRLS 2021 study attention was paid to two main factors of special importance for their education. These include the environment created for learning and the emphasis on student literacy. Of course, the environment plays an important role for the student's learning. The environment created for the student causes the child to study more and be more interested. The effect of this is known in the research results.


  1. Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Foy, P., & Arora, A. (2012). Creating and interpreting the TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 context questionnaire scales. In M.O. Martin & I.V.S Mullis (Eds.), Methods and Procedures in TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 (pp.1– 11). Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.
  2. Dahl, G.B., & Lochner, L. (2012). The impact of family income on child achievement: Evidence from the earned income tax credit. American Economic Review, 102(5), 1927–1956.
  3. Davis-Kean, P.E. (2005). The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 294–304.
  4. Martin, M.O., Foy, P., Mullis, I.V.S., & O’Dwyer, L.M. (2013). Effective schools in reading, mathematics, and science at the fourth grade. In M.O. Martin & I.V.S. Mullis (Eds.), TIMSS and PIRLS 2011: Relationships among reading, mathematics, and science achievement at the fourth grade—Implications for early learning. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.
  5. Sirin, S.R. (2005). Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research. Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 417–453.
  6. Willms, J.D. (2006). Learning divides: Ten policy questions about the performance and equity of schools and schooling systems. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
  7. Baker, L., & Scher, D. (2002). Beginning readers’ motivation for reading in relation to parental beliefs and home reading experiences. Reading Psychology, 23(4), 239–269.
  8. Kloosterman, R., Notten, N., Tolsma, J., & Kraaykamp, G. (2010). The effects of parental reading socialization and early school involvement on children’s academic performance: A panel study of primary school pupils in the Netherlands.European Sociological Review, 27(3), 291–306.
  9. Notten, N., & Kraaykamp, G. (2010). Parental media socialization and educational attainment: Resource or disadvantage? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 28(4), 453–464.