DOI: 10.21070/acopen.8.2023.5148

Utilization of Big Books in Reading Skills of Grade 4 Students Through Descriptive Texts in Elementary Schools

Pemanfaatan Buku Besar dalam Keterampilan Membaca Siswa Kelas 4 Melalui Teks Deskriptif di Sekolah Dasar

Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo

(*) Corresponding Author

Big Book Reading Skills Descriptive Text


This study discusses the use big book in learning descriptive text skills for 4th grade students at SDN GRABAGAN. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of big book on the ability to reading descriptive text. The method used in this study is quantitative with a pre-experimental design that applies pre-test and post-test instrument. By using the paired sample T-test, it shows that there are differences in the results of the average scores of the pre-test and post-test, namely     for average value of the pre-test, and     , for the post-test. This shows that the use of big book has an influence in learning reading skills.


Reading is a process performed by readers and used by writers to get the messages they need to convey in words or written language [1] .Reading is an activity that makes sense from what is written in the text. For this, in addition to learning the language used, the reader it also needs to activate various mental processes of the cognitive system. Reading skill is one of the prioritized skills for the following reasons is students reading can learn more by learning themselves. There are benefit why reading skill is important. . There are benefit why reading skill is important. First, reading in English helps students think in English. Second, read help students develop their English vocab in English. Third, reading in English makes it cozy for students to write in English. Fourth, if you do not live in an English-speaking country, the only way students can use English may be to read in English. Reading helps students become good writer.

English is one of the subjects studied in Indonesia, this is so that students can master skills in communication, linguistics and literature globally [2]. Learning English is targeted at junior high school and senior high school students, because English subject are included in the general subjects of group A. Knowing the importance of the role of English today, students must be equipped with complete communication skills in English, oral and written. Listening, speaking, reading, and writing are the four main language skill that requires a high ability to express ideas, thought, feelings, and create the procedure reports. So that’s from elementary school the teacher can start to push the students in order to understand the importance of getting information from reading by the texts [3].

Descriptive text is a type of English text that clearly describes the qualities of something. The purpose of this text is to provide the reader with clear information about the object being described. The characteristic of descriptive is using simple present tense, using conjunctions, and use a lot of adjectives n the book College Academic Writing: A Genre-Based Perspective [4].

In studying descriptive text material, students experiences several obstacles, such as confusing in reading text because don’t know the meaning, lack of ideas in reading. This is the same as the fourth grade students at SDN GRABAGAN who experience some problems in learning descriptive text material. Constraints experienced such as; lack of read the text so make them less to get information by text, confused the meaning make them bored.

From these problems, there are several ways to overcome these problems, one of which in the use of big book as learning media. Big book are one of the effective learning methods use for learning for students of today’s generations, Media besides that big book are also interesting learning method, because big book one of the visual media, if learning is well prepared and balanced between learning objectives and levels [5].

can be hardware tools or software used to support the learning process and learning goals can be achieved [6]. It is important for educators to using learning media during the learning process. Learning media stimulates students' motivation and allows them to participate in the learning process, and the learning materials and usage of learning media makes it easy for students to understand the materials.

Another research has been done by [7] have discussed the effectiveness of the big book in English learning for elementary school children. As a result, big books are proven to be effective help students develop their language skills which include listening, speaking, writing, and reading. On the basis of problem identification and the success of several previous studies, researchers decided to develop big book English teaching media for 4th – 6th graders of SD Negeri 6 Tambak Ukir [8].

Media is the perspective of education is a very strategic instrument in determining the success of the teaching and learning process. Because its existence can directly provide its own dynamics for students [9]. The use of animated film media in students learning in reading skills can be used by considering the level of students’ abilities and suitability between the material selected and what will be delivered in the learning process. Therefore, the use of big book can increase students’ interest in honing reading skills, add ideas so that students have known the meaning and knowledge in reading skills, besides that can also support students’ memory of the material presented. Big book can be an effective medium if used properly [10].

Reading skills are one of the important skills because they are stated in the Education and Culture Regulation Number 23 of 2015 concerning the growth of character, namely the realization through the implementation of the obligation to read 15 minutes before starting the lesson starting at the elementary, junior high and high school levels[7].

Reading is which one the skill have to master by the students in reading skill [11]. From early age in elementary school we must start get a lot of information by reading. But the students don’t know when they like reading can get many advantages. On the other side, by reading many benefits the students get, such as they know the news, can add vocabulary, get many knowledge, etc. Based on the observation at SDN Grabagan , we concluded that some students have problem in reading like students cannot understand what they are have read, lack of motivation in reading, so it can make them get low score in reading. The students' problems can be seen in the following: Some of students do not know the meaning sentence in descriptive text,some of students do not be able find the information in reading,some of them confusing identify based on the pictures.

Based on the symptoms above, some of them still low understanding the meaning, especially in descriptive text. Their teacher ask them to read and answer descriptive text based on material.


This research is quantitative, the type of this research is pre-experimental. According to [12]. Quantitative research is a knowledge growth process that uses data in the form of numbers as a tool to find information about what we want to know. The quantitative research approach uses more logic to prove the hypothesis. The approach starts with deductive thinking to derive hypotheses, then conducts field tests. This study used an experimental method with pre-test and post-test. In this study, the researcher used the pre-experimental method as a method of collecting research data. Pre-experimental is a quantitative method that is often used in experimental research. Pre-experimental is used to explain the casual relationship between one variable and another (variable X and Y) Before explaining the results of the research, the researcher will first explain about the media, this media is Big Book. Where the media is an important media to be used as a method for teaching for English as a foreign language. Using this media very easy to make students interested and focus when learning. For the first we give pre reading test to the students about descriptive text and answer the questions. Furthermore we give treatment to the students answer the questions from the researcher about descriptive text. After doing the treatment, the last step was being the post-test. In this study the post-test in reading descriptive text which same with the pre-test. The mean score pre-test and post-test was being compared in order to find out whether they are significant or not.

Result and Discussion


This result was conducted in class 4B starting with pre-test, treatment, then post-test. Giving pre-test and post-test questions to students at to determine the improvement of learning using big book media on reading skills after students given treatment. After calculating the score, it is known that the value of the pre- test is different from the post-test.

The data of this study were obtained from the results of students’ reading. Students read a descriptive text about public place. Then data the data is analysed by measuring from several aspects, such as know the main idea, meaning, pronunciation. After measuring the students’ abilities from some of these aspects, the researchers then analysed the data that had been obtained based on

Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Pair 1 Pre Test 53.27 22 5,221 1,113
Post Test 68.86 22 4,601 1
Table 1.Paired Samples Statistic

The data had been obtained, it was found that the use big book media as a medium of learning in students’ reading skills had a visible effect. This sample was taken 22 students after being given treatment. The results of data analysis can be seen from the table below:

N Correlation Sig.
Pair 1 Pre Test & Post Test 22 0.773 .000
Table 2.Paired Samples Correlation

Based on the table above, it can be seen that the average pre-test and post-test scores of students are different with an average pre-test score of 53.27 , while the post-test 68.86 out of a total 22 students 4B grade students of SDN GRABAGAN.

Paired Differences
Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference T df Sig. (2-tailed)
Lower Upper
Pair 1 Pre Test - Post Test -15,591 3,362 0.717 -17,081 -14,100 -21,753 21 .000
Table 3.Paired Sample Test

Paired sample statistics show the mean and standard deviation of the pre-test and post-test. The average value of the pre-test is 53.27 while the average value of the post-test is 68.86 , because the value of p – value statistics t - test is 0,000 (< 0,05), then the conclusion is rejecting the 0 hypothesis. It means that there is a significant difference in the average pre-test and post-test. These data indicate that there is a significant increase in the average pre-test and post-test.

Based on the table of pre-test and post-test result. The data after treatment using Big Book as a media to teach reading skill is higher than the data before. This increase can be seen from the average score of 22 students. Based on the table 4.1 mean score pre-test is 53.27 and the mean post-test is 68.86. It means that there is the improvement and difference of reading descriptive text before and after taught using media. The students after taught using Big Book media can answer the questions correctly and understand about the content of Descriptive Text.


This study use big book media as a medium of learning in students reading skills. The use of big book is intended so that students can overcome their reading skills. Big book can overcome students’ problems in reading, especially reading descriptive text. Learning to use big book can make it easier for students to improve their abilities. When learning, students feel excited, don’t bored.

In the research that has been done , it can be seen that there is an increase in students reading skills used big book media with an average pre-test score of 53.27 an average post-test score of 68.86. In addition, the development of students’ abilities when reading descriptive text is getting better. Before being given treatment, students have difficulty when reading, confused about less vocabulary, get confused the meaning, or main idea. After given treatment for post-test, furthermore they can read text it well.

Based on the results of data from students’ reading on descriptive text material, the use of big book in the learning process can be done well, so that it can help students in reading skills of descriptive text, especially in class 4B at SDN GRABAGAN.

Previous research used big book has been carried out [13], from using Big Book as a learning media to improve students’ reading skill. In their research, they said that Big Book effective for students because it can help them can attract students’ interest and enthusiasm in learning. On the other hand, the use of big book could relieve students’ boredom and also develop their language skill. So that students were more enthusiastic about learning.

The used of big book media as one of the learning media has also been [14], of media are to make teaching more interesting so that it can foster motivation student learning, clarifying the meaning of teaching materials to make them easier to understand.

This is line with the theory [15] learning media can be hardware tools or software used to support the learning process so that learning goals can be achieved. Learning media stimulates students' motivation and allows them to participate in the learning process, and the learning materials and usage of learning media makes it easy for students to understand the materials. The use of learning media in the learning process can avoid student boredom. This is because learning media has many properties that can draw students into the learning process.

From the research that has been done, it can be seen that using of big book as a medium of learning in learning to read can be said to be effective as a way to overcome problem in learning process. Students who have learned to use big book in the process of learning to read can focus more in learning, students can speak confidently with the text in the big book, can said the argument the meaning from text. It can be seen with the big book more improved than before. Using of big book can be used to help the learning process can be adapted to material to be studied.


Based on the research done using big book in students’ reading learning shows a significant difference between students’ abilities before and after using big book in the process of learning to read in class 4B at SDN GRABAGAN. The results of the data can be seen from significant difference in the average pre-test and post-test scores. In this research, the use of big book is used as a teaching media. By used big book students feel more excited and pay attention the material.

This study proposes several suggestions, such as: In learning the teacher can apply several media can support the teaching and learning process, furthermore it can make students more comfortable and interesting in the learning. The use of media can also be adjusted to the material to be studied. One of the media that can be used in learning is big book. Then, for further researchers, they can conduct further and in-depth research on big book in other problems encountered.


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