Art and Humanities
DOI: 10.21070/acopen.v1i1.5

Lexical-semantic classification of euphemisms of the feminine gender in the Uzbek language

Klasifikasi leksikal-semantik dari eufemisme jenis kelamin feminin dalam bahasa Uzbek

Bukhara State University
Uzbek language and literature university named after Alisher Navoi

(*) Corresponding Author

Language speech gender euphemism sexual euphemisms ethnic euphemisms social euphemisms disease-related euphemisms euphemisms of professional names


The two sexes - men and women - are not only biologically diverse, but also have their differences in language use. This article presents a lexical-semantic classification of euphemisms of female sexuality in Uzbek, and analyzes each of the euphemic agents in each group.


As the person at the center of language and speech events, each process develops directly and indirectly through his or her speech. Speech euphemisms differ from the point of view of belonging to two opposite sexes.

Euphemism is a bitter medicine in a sweet shell. Tongue euphemisms are speech actions associated with a desire to speak politely. With euphemisms, we can show courtesy to our interlocutor on the one hand and eliminate unpleasant moments for him. On the other hand, euphemisms represent the main content expressed allegorically. M: “you are wrong” (you are wrong, you are wrong), “do not stay away from the truth” (do not speak wrong), “this dress will look great” (old) and so on. According to the great director Sergei Eisenstein, the artist should be able to see the skull through the beautiful pink skin of the girls during the filming process. And euphemisms are just like that pink crust. No matter how beautiful it is, we always understand the meaning behind it. [2]

Literature Review

Evolution of society shows that biologically the strength of men and the vulnerability of women towards them is an indisputable fact. Therefore, the significant differences between them are reflected in the language of the two sexes. According to A.N. Prudivus's classification, euphemisms appeared before and created convenience in human speech(Mantellini, 2015; Pistrick & Mal’cev, 1998; Razakov Sh & Shakhgunova, 2001).

Based on the works of A.N Prudivus, S.G.Ter-Minasova, and Lobanova LP, political euphemisms are divided into the following types:

1) euphemisms that represent people with physical or mental deficits (physical defects, mental and mental deficiencies, age, appearance, etc.);

2) sexual euphemisms (sex, sexual minority);

3) ethnic euphemisms (race, nationality);

4) social euphemisms (property status, authoritative professions, economics, religion, etc.);

5) commercial euphemisms and b.

The researcher G.A Vildanova notes that from the analysis of the euphemistic vocabulary dictionary, the concept of "woman" and related to it is important in the system of euphemisms. Some researchers believe that the notion of “feminine” itself is euphemized [1].

The Interpretation Dictionary of the Uzbek language also states that "woman" is generally of the opposite sex and expresses the concept of "wife" and "wife". M: My wife does the yard in the summer and winter: she does the laundry, sweeps the house, bakes, and beds (Oybek, Selected works). Ahmed gasped at the brigade's shoulders and looked at his wife. (S. Nurov, Narvon). This shows that the concept of "woman" is itself an euphemized word [5]. From this definition, we can see that in the Uzbek language the word itself is gendered.

At home I told my wife everything. Our woman did not believe before (T. Murod, "Fields from my Father," p. 131) (wife).

It was true that they did not take a girl from your own (T. Murod, "Fields from My Father," p. 134) (wife).

In these examples, the word "woman" is a euphemism used as a substitute for the word "woman," and is a sign of speech culture.

Roger Holder noted in the dictionary of euphemisms the weaker sex - women, in short, the weaker family (race), the weaker part of the family, while simultaneously calling it both euphemisms and dysphysia, because it is politically a chauvinistic term. At the same time, the phrase emphasizes that most women take it as frustrating.

Researcher G.A Vildanova lists several thematic groups of the "female" euphemistic thesaurus:

1. Euphemisms expressing natural and physical and psychological features;

2. Euphemisms that hide disability;

3. Euphemisms related to the "beauty industry" (cosmetology, plastic surgery, etc.);

4. Physiological processes and euphemisms defining body parts;

5. Euphemisms representing professional names [1].

Result and Discussion

The researcher included lexical units representing the physical, psychological, and physical characteristics of euphemisms, which represent women's behavior, appearance, age, education, and marital status. Women are traditionally evacuated, taking into account their weaknesses and weaknesses. Euphemisms that make up this group account for 17.6% of the total euphemisms studied. Studies have shown that there are a lot of euphemisms that define women as “easily accessible” or “easy”(Clark, Huxley, & Mountford, 2010; Newswire, 2012; Ryan, Wilson, & Kain, 2002; Todd et al., 2009).

Lexical-semantic classification of euphemisms for female sexuality in Uzbek:

1. Euphemisms that represent the moral, emotional and intellectual qualities of women

2. Euphemisms of female age

3. Euphemisms that represent the appearance of women

4. Euphemism related to female body parts

5. Euphemisms that represent women's occupations

6. Euphemism related to women's disease

We will focus on euphemisms that represent the moral, emotional and intellectual qualities of women.

Can a single woman, in particular, adapt to society? (Freedom, September 26, 2018) (husbandless)

In social life, family conditions and living conditions of people do not differ. There are a number of women in the society who are old but unmarried or divorced, whose husbands have died, and the words that apply to them must be very careful. The "single woman" euphemism used above applies to non-married women and helps to smoothly convey an uncomfortable notion.

"Are you open?" "There's a nice guy, what do you say?" She didn't even want to answer, and nodded away at us. (talk) (husbandless)

The expression "open" in this example is euphemistic and serves to describe the concept of "landless". However, it should not be used in the manner of the Uzbek speech in the form of open, dysfunctional.

Holder says there are many euphemisms for the notion of "jazz". This is because a woman living with a man out of wedlock has been criticized by society. Men try to hide it through left-handed wife, little wife, lover, secretary, nephew, female-friendly euphemisms [1].

This time he did not want to abandon the “ready-made” thing. He escorted him home to Chorsu (U.Khoshimov, "There is a light, there is a shadow", p. 275) (play)

On the contrary, when the engine was running, that person came out from under his feet.

In these examples, the talk shows that euphemisms of soul and willingness are used in the sense of "play." It is well known that there are women in the community who are lighthearted. But to call them dysfunction directly does not fit the label of speech. Therefore, it is necessary to change the name to a more sophisticated unit, namely euphemism(Kalpakjian & Schmid, 2014; Khan & Ghai, 1979; Lamers & Khamzina, 2010; Phillips & Jones, 2006).

Unfortunately, there are girls who are involved in "shameful business". (talk) (prostitution)

The discourse contains an euphemism of "disgraceful work," in which the morally weak and immoral girls and women have become "tradesmen" and are used to express the meaning of "prostitution", which is the plague of society.

When we buy an old girl, her family gives us a soul! And he answered and said unto them, (pillow)

Older girls are "pixelated". Perhaps because of this, my parents are ready to send their daughter out early so as not to have a daughter like so and so. (old girl)

The "old girl" euphemisms applied to unmarried older girls have helped to ease the name of the negative.

If euphemism is applied to virgins, "virgin", "virgin", "girl", euphemisms of "sinful", "rape", "victim" and "lost" are applied to unmarried women.

The girl, who claimed to be a virgin, gave birth to a baby boy (

A girl from the Taylak district of Samarkand region committed suicide after being violated (Post, July 15).

In Chinese, the following euphemisms are used: a strangled woman, a sex worker, or a black woman, and so on.

In recent years, the word “Miss” (young lady) has been used as a synonym for euphemisms. Therefore, in the case of young girls, the term is now used with the last name [4].

The study by G.A Vildanova shows that euphemisms, which explain the feelings and intellectual qualities of women, are very small (2.3%). Women who have been rejected by society are subject to euphemisms such as "living at the expense of others" and "lifestyle dependent."

In support of the stereotype about the lack of intelligence in beautiful women, Roger Holder cites euphemisms of discourse and real dolls (attractive women).

While all the aesthetic and ethical laws prohibit direct speaking about sexual matters in modern Russian and Chinese languages, euphemisms are widely used.

When it comes to intimate relationships, women can use a lot of terms instead of the word "whore". M: "Who is a whore, whore?" The boy asked his mother, who was sitting in the window. “This is a woman who spends most of her time in the male community,” said Ada Anatolyevna (Mk-Ural, 2001). The Russian dictionary of euphemisms also provides the following examples: night butterflies, lady, cheerleader, street woman, love band, freelance professional, mass woman, victim of a vibrant society, lightweight woman, and so on. M: She was totally free and belonged to the type of female servants of love (I. Bunin) [4].

Research shows that many of the above-mentioned words do not always serve as euphemisms. We can only understand that such lexical units have euphemisms.

Euphemisms of female age. It is well known that euphemisms that characterize age are a painful spot for many women. In this regard, it is proposed that any woman under the age of fifty be called a “girl” [Holder 2003: 164]. In fiction we often find words such as blue hair and gray hair referring to an older woman with white hair.

In front of the table in front of the table was a doctor with a gray-haired doctor. (O.Hashimov “Spring does not return”, p. 21) (old)

A woman with gray hair went to the drugstore and asked the drug dealer, "Is there anything with blonde hair?" The salesman replied, "Yes, lady, I have a deep respect for white hair!"

His legs were sore, his waist was weak, and when his eyes were gone, he gave us a stick. (old) ( )

It is we who celebrate our success on our deathbed as we prepare for our final destination. (dying) ( )

High levels of protein, vitamins A, D, B and B12 can be found in eggs, as well as leukemia and zeaksanthin, which prevents sight disorders in elderly people. (Old) 44347241

Generally, artists who have no value in their lifetime and who have reached the age of fifty become more productive in their fifties. (old) (Bukhara, February 27, 2013)

As he gets older, his life experience increases and he becomes more skilled at housework. (old)

In the above examples, euphemisms such as blonde hair, gray hair, waist power, light bulging, preparing for the final destination, are applied to older women(Connell, 2006; Razakov Sh & Shakhgunova, 2001).

In English, the terms "spring" and "chick" are used with a bit of humor and ironic to describe the age of women. M: "Hey," he grumbled, "you're not a spring chicken." [Collins1986: 330]

Generally, such euphemisms are a very small group, accounting for 0.7% of gender-friendly euphemisms [1].

As can be seen from the examples, most of the euphemisms that represent age do not discriminate against gender. These euphemisms can be easily applied to women and men. Because sex does not play an important role in it.

Euphemisms that represent the appearance of women. Euphemisms, which emphasize the attractiveness of women, are often used by men to hide the interests of a particular woman and help them to a certain extent(Henderson, Roberts, Bogan, Rubin, & Semenza, 1998).

The euphemisms that portray women’s attractiveness and marital status are a minority, suggesting that they are inferior in modern society.

It is worth noting that most of these evaluations are usually related to irony and comic situations. For example, "bedded goods" (about unmarried women who can't get married), "fishing flotilla" (about girls of marriage age who are going abroad in search of land) [1].

At the same time, it should be noted that there are also women who do not have feminine dignity, and, on the contrary, there are no women who dream of "overload". J. Nienen and K. Silver agree that it is appropriate to use euphemisms such as "thin", "cane", "thin", "hip".

Generation and use of gendered euphemisms are often associated with commercial reasons, and the desire to engage a particular product without offending the consumer. They should be able to politely describe the "full" women's clothing and show the miracle of the manufacturers (Neaman & Silver 1995: 39-40) [1].

Euphemisms related to women's beauty are a very relevant topic at the moment. Because beauty makes women to undergo any cosmetic procedures. For example, they are ready to do anything to improve their face, skin, hairstyles, and so on. However, not every woman admits that her beauty is the result of the work of cosmetologists. They cover the disadvantages of cosmetics and fall into the category of "looking after" women.

Even if that sloppy face didn't come to the waiter, he would have come home right (U. Hashimov, "There Is Light, Shadow," p. 274) .

The entire woman gazed at the flowers straight and proudly rising from the cold ground through the stream of word-combs, and the appearance of wonder was striking. (World Literature, 2015, issue 5) (fat)

They should not be too strong or full, and then they should be in good shape. (fat, fat)

In the examples "euphemisms" and "full" euphemisms served to give "fat" meaning. Obviously, overweight is usually not a sign of beauty. For this reason, the speaker "refrains" from using the word, and it is necessary for euphemic units to express its meaning.

The wife, on the other hand, is a poor man, unlucky. ( (ugly)

The camouflage euphemisms are used in place of the word “ugly” to ensure that the idea is conveyed in a way that is not boring.

According to experts, the cause of shinyness is not the absence of hair on the head, but of new hair that has grown instead of shedding hair. (talk) (cal)

"The preservation of the same number of base cells, even in the hairs of the hair, gives hope to reactivate them," said Costarelis.

Illustrations in the examples and haired euphemisms are used in place of the words "cal" and "humpback" and convey the meaning in a softer way.

In order to apply the stereotype that beautiful women are often smarter, Roger uses euphemisms such as "puppets", "beautiful but stupid women."

At the same time, we often find the word "blonde" (yellow-haired woman) used to refer to an attractive but stupid, ignorant woman. "Yellow" is associated with adventures and dangerous situations. M: Greta can hang herself! And I won't put my neck in jeopardy for any yellow.

There are also cases where Uzbeks have a negative attitude towards blonde hair. It is stereotyped that light-colored women dye their hair.

Unfortunately, blonde hair is suitable only for those born with blond hair. Artificial blonde hair transforms beautiful girls into ordinary and unattractive girls

The word "blind" has euphemized the word "ugly."

As the examples show, euphemisms that characterize women are often associated with weight and appearance.

Euphemisms related to female body parts. To address female external organs, euphemisms such as cats, kittens, and pink kittens are used [3].

In Russian folklore there is also the use of euphemistic expressions. The genital organs in the human body are often found in frequencies spoken in Russian. M: in women - anterior, lower, lower position (location and nature of the genital organ).

For example, female organs and their parts, the genital organ (the gate of life or the gate of life), pregnancy (expectant female), sexually transmitted disease (contagious disease), and so on. [3]

The word "breast", "breast" are used for euphemisms such as "breast", "thrust", "good life", "baby food source".

Purple, for you - my breast is free, Get out of the sky! (Chulpon)

Euphemisms such as “shameful place” and “there” are used to describe the female genitalia.

Therefore, gender euphemisms related to female genitalia, although small in language, are a common occurrence, and their use in speech is a sign of multiculturalism.

Euphemisms representing women's occupations. Euphemism (Greek: euphorism - “goodness”) is a neutral or descriptive expression in terms of meaning and emotion, and are substitutes for words that are obscene and inaccurate.

In certain words, people who are at risk are found in taboos (taboo words). Pilots, paratroopers, circus artists, for example, are afraid to use the word "last." Instead, "edge" (or "one more time" is indirectly used in the circus to use the "last", "ending" or "be") units - for example, "edge flight." They also try to substitute the word “death” with “bony” and “nose-free” expressions. While gold miners use "yellow metal" instead of "gold", the same report is made of gold, as a special investigation gives a definitive conclusion on the nature and character of the seized material and is illegal before the decision to accept yellow metal as gold.

That's my job. We provide services that are in great demand. ” Don't get married to a frustrated billionaire.

In this context, the phrase "service that is in great demand" is understood to be a broker and a subsidiary. It is well-known that in society, women often find themselves in the process of finding a wife and a husband.

They will continue to do so secretly in search of easy income.

The euphemisms of “easy-to-earn” refer to the profession of prostitution.

For sweeping women, the names of occupants, such as "cleaning", "maid", "midwife" and "obstetrician" for women giving birth, indicate that they have been evacuated.

The “junior health worker” euphemism applies to housekeepers in hospitals.

G.A Valdanova argues that some of the political professions of women can be transformed into euphemisms. M: Pink collar workers (very low-wage workers).

In the scholarly study, socially acceptable occupations, along with politically euphemistic names, account for 6%, indicating that there is a socio-educational taboo in this area [1].

Hence, there are gender euphemisms for the expression of certain professions that are feminine in public life, which facilitate the softening of the profession's name.

Euphemisms related to women's disease. Metritis for women diseases ([metra - uterus] - inflammation of the uterus), endometritis (inflammation of the uterus, endometrium), endometriosis (cervical tube, sperm closure, reduction of permeability, immunological problems and implantation) such as adnexitis (inflammation of the uterus and ovaries), mastitis (inflammation of the human breast; most commonly in pregnant women and pregnant women). The scientific name is euphemistic.

Menstruation is characterized by the following polite euphemisms: aunt's visit, a color television, a red army, a holiday, the moon, and so on.

Hence, the names of women-related illnesses are euphemisms, and their Latin names serve to prevent danger, that is, to convey information without worrying about the patient's heart.


Men and women differ not only in biological terms, but also in the use and use of language and speech units. After all, physiological differences also cause speech disorders.

As the portrait of a man and a woman is realized through his speech, euphemisms that are peculiar to them and used in their speech can also be traced to genetics. Thus, feminine euphemisms are subdivided into specific themes and show the existence of a "female" and "male" group in society through language factors.

The above groups can be continued. This is because the classification is diverse. The results of the study showed that euphemisms, which represent the moral, emotional and intellectual qualities of women, are more than euphemisms that represent age, appearance, body parts, occupations and disease.


We hereby say thankyou to Bukhara State University and Uzbek language and literature university named after Alisher Navoi for supporting our research.


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