Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer
DOI: 10.21070/acopen.6.2022.4729

Types Of Assimilation Of Borrowed Words From French To English Language

Jenis Asimilasi Kata Pinjam Dari Bahasa Prancis Ke Bahasa Inggris

Basic doctoral student of Foreign Languages in Natural Sciences department Bukhara State University

(*) Corresponding Author

Types Assimilation Borrowed Words French English Language


More than half of the etymological structure of modern English consists of borrowed words, the first of which are words borrowed from French. Although the fact of the influence of French on the vocabulary of English has been repeatedly noted, the nature of this influence has not been sufficiently studied.


The fact that there are many French words in English is well known, but their development in English, the degree of assimilation, and their nature have not been studied. At the same time, it is this factor that very clearly shows the nature of the relationship between the two languages, so the nature and level of assimilation of French-derived words is of great interest for studying the modern English dictionary.

Literature review

A language that has mastered foreign words will not leave them unchanged for long. These words are gradually modified according to their phonetic, morphological, and lexical patterns and adapted to the whole language system, i.e., undergo a process of assimilation. As a result of this process, the acquired words lose their linguistic character, cease to stand out in the lexical background of the acquired language and become an integral part of it.

The basic vocabulary is the basis for the formation of new words, the lexical-semantic center of the language, which in many ways determines the ways of development and the laws of acquisition. It regulates the entry of assimilated words and determines their semantic content, which is usually assimilated and not expressed in language in the meanings that represent new concepts for a particular people. When words that have entered the language express concepts that are already expressed in the language system, they enter into certain synonymous relations with the words in the main dictionary and are left out of the language in the position of rarely used synonyms.


In connection with the lexical structure of a particular language, the acquired words are subject to the laws of development of the basic vocabulary, which, together with the grammatical system, change them according to the internal laws of language development.

The laws of assimilation of words that appear in a language at one time or another, their entry into the language system, their subordination to language norms, and their changes are also related to the movement of the internal laws of language. In linguistics, word acquisition defines three types of word acquisition: morphological, phonetic, and lexical assimilation, based on the change of words according to their internal grammatical structure, sound appearance, and semantic content according to the internal laws of language. These three types of assimilation are closely related to each other, but since they have their own characteristics, we consider it expedient to briefly describe each of them separately.

Grammatical assimilation

The process of assimilation of French words in English is manifested, first of all, in their subordination to the grammatical structure. The grammatical structure that has evolved over time changes the language, including its vocabulary. Assimilated words from French have been included in active grammatical categories used in accordance with the rules of English grammar since the time they were available in English. These words take all the inflectional forms specific to this part of speech in English and form these forms according to the local English word model. During the assimilation, morphological ornaments, such as the French articles le, la, les, used before horses denoting gender and number, were removed. We observe a gradual disappearance of the grammatical gender category in assimilated words, which is related to the general trend of grammatical gender loss of English horses. Also, all derived horses have the same system as English horses. The genitive singular and plural s (es) are formed by adding beornes, hostages, toures, crunes, and so on.


According to English norms, adjectives do not follow all grammatical rules except levels of comparison. Verbs that exist in English are conjugated according to individuals and form simple and compound tenses according to the English model. Most learned French verbs are characterized by the formation of preterit and adjective II in the form of weak English verbs (e.g., to turn, to evoke, to control, to revenge).

French verbs ending in a vowel are added to the weak verbs of the 1st type, for example, cryien - to shout, assayin - to try, obeie (n) - to obey. Verbs ending in a consonant were first conjugated in the south of England according to the pattern of the weak verbs of type 2, that is, in the present i and preterite, which have not undergone a vowel syncopation before d, e.g., servi (n) -served.

After the disappearance of the special forms of type 2 in both the north and south of England, they began to form preterite, among all the weak verbs.

The peculiarity of many French adjectives in English is that they retain the plural form. Such adjectives are often used in post-positive terms - letters patents, place delitables, lords spirituels; however, in the course of the subsequent development of linguistics, the plural form -s was abolished by them and the postpositive use of adjectives mastered in French was preserved in certain stable compounds such as court martial, heir apparent, knight errant.

Self-words and complex words within a language are often not associated with proper words. Thus, with derivatively assimilated foreign words, the process of simplification occurs if these words are not associated with the lexical material of the assimilated language. Usually the main reason for the simplification of words in the native language is due to the change of time, the words are simplified, they become simpler. We see the same thing in the French language.

French horses have lost the meaning of control, rendez-vous, char-a-bancs, parterre, English components, i.e., have been taken as simplified and simple words. In some cases, they begin to be written together, their phonetic change occurs. It comes, for example, from French to English in the form of contre-roule (from Latin contra rotula) and means "to register a treasure." The difference between simplification in local and foreign words is that in native language words this process is very slow, and assimilated words occur immediately as they enter the language.

As a result, the morphological structure of the mastered words is recognized by this people, the core morphemes have a real meaning and have the ability to form the next word, while the English affixes are used to form new words. Thus, a number of suffixes and prefixes of French origin appeared in English -ment, -al, -ess, -ance and others.


Most of the French words are formed with the suffix -ance, -ence: ignorance, arrogance, entrance, repentance, innocence and others. So, for the English, the meaning of this suffix is ​​clear, with the help of which abstract nouns are formed from adjectives and verbs. Thus, it allows the formation of a new word "hindrance", in which the French suffix is ​​attached to the root of the English verb "hinder".

Similarly, the English suffix -ment, which is part of words such as government, treatment, agreement, was also recognized by the British, and with its help new words were formed from the English core: fulfillment, bereavement, amazement, bewilderment.


  1. Safarova X. S. Syntactic features of loanwords and appendixes from French to English. Chet tillarni ўkityshning dolzarb masalalari mavzusidagi Republic of ilmiy-amaliy anzhuman 2021-yil March 17-18. 304-305 pages.
  2. Safarova X. S. The structural-semantic analysis of English language embeddings from French language.167-168 pages.
  3. Safarova X. S. Borrowed words from French to English language. Actual problems of modern science ,education and training 2021-йил , март. ISSN 2181-9750. 50-54 pages. .
  4. Safarova X. S. Assimilation features of word learning from French to English. 2nd International Conference on Science Technology and Educational Practices. May 15-16,2021. 225-227 pages.
  5. Usmanova Nasiba Yunusovna. (2021). Classification Characteristics Of Financial Investments, Factors And Methods Of Influence On Investment Activity. CENTRAL ASIAN JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL & APPLIED SCIENCES, 2(2), 90-94. Retrieved from
  6. Usmanova Nasiba. (2022). Innovative Economic Development of Uzbekistan: Trends and Prospects. The Peerian Journal, 5, 175–179. Retrieved from
  7. Nasiba U. Innovative Economic Development of Uzbekistan: Trends and Prospects //The Peerian Journal. – 2022. – Т. 5. – С. 175-179.
  8. Usmanova N. Y. DIGITAL ECONOMY IN UZBEKISTAN //Modern problems of socio-economic systems in the context of globalization. – 2020. – С. 163-166.
  9. Usmanova N. Y. WAYS OF DEVELOPING DIGITAL ECONOMY IN UZBEKISTAN //Theoretical & Applied Science. – 2020. – №. 2. – С. 101-105.
  10. Tursunovna S. D. Muslihabegim Miskin Appeals to Historical Person-Hazrat Agoyi Buzurg //Middle European Scientific Bulletin. – 2021. – Т. 14.
  11. Sodikova D. T. Glimpses to feminine literature during the dynasty of Bukhara emirate: all about a poetess muslikhabegim miskin and her literary heritage //Actual Problems of Turkic Studies: Russia and the Turkic-Muslim World. – 2021. – pp. 174-176.
  12. Sodikova T. D. Depiction of Romantic Love in Muslihabegim Miskin’s Poetry //Middle European Scientific Bulletin. – 2021. – Т. 8