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DOI: 10.21070/acopen.6.2022.4061

Attitudes in Social Media Affect Learning Motivation: Evidence from Java, Indonesia

Sikap di Media Sosial berpengaruh Terhadap Motivasi Belajar: Bukti dari Jawa, Indonesia

Manajemen, Institut Teknologi dan Bisnis Kalbis, Indonesia

(*) Corresponding Author

social media engagement competency attitude


The development of student learning motivation is the very dynamic, main task of teachers, particularly in the era of the digital revolution 4.0. Millennial students have been immersed into digital technology, by which learning instruments must also be adjusted, including the competencies, services and attitudes of educators. This study is an attempt to determine the strong influence of social media engagement, competence, service, and teacher attitudes on the learning motivation of high school students. This research was conducted using a field research method with a quantitative approach among 50 students from 22 institutions in 3 provinces, DKI Jakarta, West Java and Central Java. The sampling method is non-probability sampling with purposive sampling type, using a single criteria that is high school students, and data processing techniques is multiple linear regression. The results of the research show that teachers’ social media engagement has a significant effect on learning motivation, teachers’ competence has a significant effect on learning motivation, teacher’ attitude has a significant effect on learning motivation, and teachers’ service has no significant effect on learning motivation. This research is expected to help developing the enthusiasm of high school teachers in improving several aspects to become a favorite figure among students which has impact on the effectivity and efficiency of teaching and learning process.


The learning motivation of high school students in contemporary digital revolution 4.0 is a must-reviewed object of study. Not only the learning instruments, methods and materials, but also human resource factors in this case teachers as educators in order to obtain comprehensive knowledge of appropriate learning motivation. Learning motivation has a complex, dynamic factors, which are actual to be studied. One of them is the teacher as the main educator subject who is crucial due to the pressure of digital technology developments, such as the rapidly growing social media platform that dominates the living space of students. This study tries to build a new teacher's figure that correlates and has an impact on student learning motivation, covering four key variables, ranging from social media engagement, competency, service and attitudes. This four factors is defined as a complex of factors that is favored by students and endorsing their learning motivation.

The figure of a teacher who in the past few decades was defined as a collection of competencies, methodological mastery and service is now expanded by the presence of technological variables, especially the internet of things (iot) and social media platforms. The use and mastery of social media must be integrated into the learning process, considering the character of millennial students who have been surrounded by gadgets and an technological environment. The scope of teachers’ competency is also expanded, not only covering methods and materials, but also technical, digital equipment. That is why the favorite teacher figure among millennial students has new definition, considering four crucial variables, social media engagement, competence, service, and attitude.

The complex factors of favorite teacher figure, i.e. social media engagement, competence, service, and attitude, refers to the National Education Standards, especially the Educator Standards, as governed by the regulation of Minister of Education and Culture number 20 of 2016 [1]. which stipulates that teachers’ figure must reflect several aspects, i.e. (i) attitudes which defines as faith and fear of God, honest and caring, responsible, lifelong learners, and physically and mentally healthy for the family, school, community and natural environment, nation, state, regional and international environment; (ii) having factual, conceptual, procedural, and meta-cognitive knowledge at the technical, specific, detailed, and complex level with regard to science, technology, art, culture, humanities. Mastery of knowledge is measured by the ability to link various knowledges. Factual knowledge is defined as technical and specific, detailed and complex knowledge regarding science, technology, art, and culture related to society and the natural environment, nation, state, regional area, and internationally; while conceptual knowledge includes principles, generalizations, theories, models, and structures used in relation to technical and specific, detailed and complex knowledge regarding science, technology, art, and culture. In addition, procedural knowledge is a way of doing things or activities related to technical, specific knowledge, algorithms, methods, and criteria to determine appropriate procedures with regard to science, technology, art, and culture, related to society and the natural environment, nation, state, regional and international. Last, meta-cognitive knowledge includes knowledge of one's own strengths and weaknesses and uses it in studying technical, detailed, specific, complex, contextual and conditional knowledge regarding science, technology, art, and culture related to society and the natural environment.

The third aspect (iii) is thinking and acting skills, refers to creativity, productivity, critical, independent, collaborative and communicative skill through a scientific approach. The provisions of the teacher as a competent person must be understood in a new way with the changes and social dynamics of technology in order to build the effectiveness and efficiency of an ffective learning process.

State of the Art

Optimizing the use of human resources is the key to successful processes in the organization. In the realm of school education, the teacher workforce as educators is a crucial key to the success of the transfer of knowledge. Moreover, in the current era, teacher proficiency in many aspects, especially digital technology, is one of the mandatory prerequisites. It is understandable that the focus on developing superior human resources, including teachers, is a necessity in the face of competitive and changing business conditions [2]. Smilansky's theory is sharpened by the views of Ed Michaels, et al., that applied standards of human resources should use the paradigm of modernity which is open to all elements of technological progress and several new benchmarks must be considered in the implementation of HR management systems [3]. In the perspective of Total Quality Management (TQM), quality is not only the outcome, but also processes, environment and the people. This is clearly seen in the definition formulated by Goeth and Davis, that quality is a dynamic condition associated with products, services, people, processes, and the environment that meet or exceed expectations [4]. Therefore, favorite teachers are prerequisite actors in the successfull teaching and learning process.

The complex of ideal teacher factors has a relationship with the favorite teacher character in the eyes of millennial students. This relationship cannot be separated, so the theoretical basis for this research covers many fields of science, from psychology, education to management, which is stated as follows:

Figure 1. Applied Theory

Figure 1 explores four main variables in the favorite teacher development, namely perception (of students), teacher personality, technological ability, and teacher competence which will have an impact on student learning motivation. One of the references to this model is the theory developed by Irena Lebak et al. [5], in the article Students Perception: How Does Teacher Behave, in the “Life and School: Journal for The theory and Practice of Education in Crotia”, which states that students' perceptions of their favorite teacher have 3 (three) aspects: (i) way of teaching (how to teach) which includes understanding and breadth of insight, especially on new concepts, (ii) communication, especially the ability to collaborate with students, and (iii) personality, especially an open and supportive character to work together.

The theoretical building of Irena and her friends was further confirmed by Prof. Jeffrey Nevid, a psychologist from St John's University, who stated that there is a consideration of understanding the character of students, the millennial generation, who has several characteristics, such as, always using technology, using the internet/gadgets 20 hours a day, more collaborative in assignments and must-always do group work [6]. While Prof. Linda Neilson, in Teaching the Millennial Generation, a Sociologist from University of Brunswick, explains that milenials have the dominant characteristics, such as materialist, realistic with value of money, impatient, demanding, easy to complain and complain, instant, and very knowledgeable, very technological, anti with an authoritative style, more communicative and need more attention (comfortable with name calling) [7]. While Dr. Martin Roth, US Department of Education, together with Terry Heick and Jill Euberg, education specialists, outline eight most appropriate teacher figures for millennials [8, 9, 10], those are:

  1. ICT and Digital Literacy
  2. Interpersonal Skills:
    1. Communication Skills
    2. Negotiation skills in class: bargaining skills
    3. Conflict resolution skills
    4. Listening skills
  3. Critical thinking skills: analysis and problem solving, logical basis
  4. Networking among DUDI professionals
  5. Be active on social media, but that doesn't mean being friends on FB, Twitter,
  6. Team Work Approach
  7. Imaginative
  8. Work-life balance.

In this study, service and attitude become one unit and blended with social media engagement and teacher competence. Referring to the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC), service can be comprehended as totality of features and characteristics that emphasize the ability to fully satisfy some needs [11]. Therefore, the services provided to clients, in this

case the students must be able to meet the expectations, desires, and needs, so as to achieve customer satisfaction.


The research was conducted as the field research method using a quantitative approach and causality methods. The causality is a method for testing certain theories by examining the relationship between variables [12]. The data collection is using survey method, with questionnaire techniques, namely a list of written questions that have been previously formulated to be answered by selected respondents [13]. In addition, researchers also conducted observations and documentation as secondary data.

The sampling method is non-probability sampling with purposive type with a single criteria that is high school students in Java. There are 50 respondents from 22 institutions spread across three provinces in Java, i.e. DKI Jakarta, West Java and Central Java. Data analysis is applied multiple linear regression method which has the advantage of a more measurable and comprehensive conclusion. The data analysis technique used is descriptive analysis and correlation analysis, including descriptive statistical tests, data quality tests, classical assumption tests, linear regression analysis, and hypothesis testing.

Result and discussion

The following are the characteristics of respondents based on demographic background including gender, institution of origin, city of origin and class or grade level in secondary school.

Demographic data show that respondents by gender are almost equal. In addition, most of the filling students, 60%, were senior high school students range from grades 10, 11 and 12, who came from 22 educational institutions spread accross six cities, such as Jakarta, Bekasi, Yogyakarta, Wonosobo, Magelang and Rembang Regency.

Classic Assumption T est

The validity test for all statement items in the instrument shows the results of the r value above the r table, 0.279, so that it is declared a valid instrument used in the measurement. Meanwhile, for the reliability test for the four independent variables, the results are shown in Table 1 below:

Variabel Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items Note
Engagement in Socmed 0,879 5 Reliable
Competency 0,952 3 Reliable
Behaviour 0,873 3 Reliable
Service 0,855 3 Reliable
Study motivation 0,855 5 Reliable
Table 1. Reliability Test

Table 1 shows the coefficient of Cronbach Alpha of four variables are above the standard coefficient of 0.6, so the instrument is declared reliable for use in measurements.

Normality T est

Measurement of instrument validity using the One Sample Kosmolgorov-Smirnov Test technique is shown in the following table:

One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test
Unstandardized Residual
N 50
Normal Parametersa,b Mean ,0000000
Std. Deviation 2,63872865
Most Extreme Differences Absolute ,097
Positive ,056
Negative -,097
Test Statistic ,097
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) ,200c,d
a. Test distribution is Normal.
b. Calculated from data.
c. Lilliefors Significance Correction.
d. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
Table 2. Validity Test

Normality test shows a coefficient of 0.200 which is greater than the standard validity coefficient of 0.5, so it is called a valid instrument.

Hypothesis Test

In hypothesis testing, degrees of freedom df = n-k-1 (n is the number of samples and k is the number of independent variables), with a significant level of 5% (0.05), so the value of t table is 1.67.

It is known that the t value is greater than t table and the significance coefficient is less than 0.05, then can be resumed that the social media engagement, teachers competence and attitude, have a significant impact on students' learning motivation, while teachers’ service variable has no effect on students' learning motivation. As for the structural equation can be formulated as follows:

Y = 1,532 + 0,153X1 + 0,413X2 + 0,071X3 +0,835X4 + e

Based on the multiple linear regression equation above, the result is that the constant value obtained is 1.532, meaning that the independent variable is omitted or has a value of 0, then Y is worth 1.532 which has a positive and strong effect.

Meanwhile, the Adjusted R Square is 97.3%, which means that the ability of the independent variable to explain the variation of the dependent variable is very strong. Meanwhile, the remaining 2.7% is explained by other variables outside the variables contained in the study.

Meanwhile, for the ANOVA test, the results of the simultaneous effect of the two independent variables are F Count 437.346 with a significance of 0.00, as evidenced by Table 5 below.

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 545,488 4 136,372 437,346 ,000b
Residual 14,032 45 ,312
Total 559,520 49
a. Dependent Variable: MOTIVASI BELAJAR
Table 3. F Test

Indicator Effect Based on Mean Value

Discussion of indicators effect is shown through the measurement of the average value. The results are presented in the following tables, with the first variable being social media engagement:

Table 6.

Indicators Mean Value Statement Highest Frequency
Socmed 3,74 Highest Agree
Game 3,4 Neutral
KPOP, Korean Drama 3,1 Neutral
Tiktok 3,02 Lowest Neutral
Youtube 3,68 Sangat SetujStrongly agree
Table 4. Mean Value of Sosial Media Engagement

From Table 4, it is known that social media platforms engagements are assessed by students as quite positive, with the highest mean score on the Youtube platform of 3.68. This is understandable since compared to other social media, Youtube is the most suitable platform for study materials.

Therefore, the use of Youtube as a learning medium should be developed by teachers. Meanwhile, the use of the Tiktok application was to be of less benefit for students with the smallest score of 3.02. This deserves a review of teacher activities on platforms such as Tiktok, KPOP and the like.

The following are the results of measuring indicators for the teacher competency variable based on the mean value.

Indicators Mean Value Statement Highest Frequency
Ilmu dan Wawasan 4,84 Tertinggi Sangat setuju
Teknologi digital 4,56 Terendah Sangat setuju
Teknik Komunikasi 4,68 Sangat setuju
Table 5. Mean value of

Table 5 shows the high score on all indicators, which is above 4.56 with the majority answering strongly agree, which means that the three indicators are assessed by students as their main needs that can encourage intention to learn. The average value of these three indicators far outperforms mastery of social media platforms, which is only around a score of 3. The competence of teachers in mastering knowledge and insight is still a key factor in the image of a favorite teacher in the eyes of students. Mastery of digital technology and communication techniques is also the highest requirement for students to motivate learning.

Furthermore, from the service variable, the score of the indicators can be seen as follows.

Indicators Mean Value Statement Highest Frequency
Listening ability 4,78 Highest Strongly agree
Fairness and Professional 4,72 Strongly agree
Reachable 4,7 Lowest Strongly agree
Table 6. Mean Value of Service

Table 6 shows the mean value of the three teacher service indicators which is even higher than the competency variable and far beyond the mastery of social media platforms, with a score above 4.7 with the majority stating strongly agree. This number is considered very high and almost perfect on a scale of 5. This means that the characteristics of teacher services such as the ability to listen, be fair and professional and easy to contact and communicate with students are the main keys to a positive and favorite image in the eyes of students.

Meanwhile, for the teacher's attitude variable, the results can be presented as follows:

Indikator Mean Keterangan Frekuensi Tertinggi
Kindness, relax, casual 4,52 Strongly agree
Patience and understanding student difficulties 4,7 Highest Strongly agree
DIscipline and order 4,44 Lowest Strongly agree
Table 7. Mean Value of Attitude

Table 7 shows the average score of the three indicators in the teacher's attitude variable which is very high, above 4.44, with the majority stating a strongly agree attitude. On average, it is slightly below the service and competence variables, but with almost equal quantity. It can be concluded that a friendly, relaxed and informal attitude is most preferred by students as a favorite in teaching and learning and instilling learning motivation.

As a resume, all surveys regarding teacher aspects in the digital era in the eyes of millennial students are clarified by the following results of favorite teachers’ characters:

No Karakter yang Difavoritkan Frekuensi % Pengukuran
1 Good, friendly, cool, slang, relaxed, not favoritism and humble 34 72% Favorite
2 Able to explain the material, intelligent 19 40% Favorite
3 Not monotonous in teaching, creative, technological 12 26% Moderate
4 Understand the character and condition of students 11 23% Moderate
5 Able to communicate with students 11 23% Moderate
6 Motivating, bringing out potential and inspiring 10 21% Moderate
7 Millennials, social media and technology updates 5 11% Less favorite
8 Easy to contact for assignments 3 6% Less favorite
9 Discipline and firm 3 6% Less favorite
Table 8. Value of Favorite Teachers’ Characters

Table 8 shows that the highest frequency, reaching 72%, is good attitude, friendly, cool, slang, relaxed, and humble, which is concluded as the most favorite teacher character, far above other characters. This character describes a teacher who is open, not scary, and accepted not only as an educator, but as a good friend to students. The second most favorite character is being able to explain the material and being intelligent which is supported by 40% of students, which are common demanded aspect from a teacher. While the third to sixth characters on average get support ranging from 21% - 23%, are considered quite favorite characters. What needs to be further developed is the characters number 7 to 9, namely literate on social media platforms, easy to contact, and also disciplined and firm, which are less chosen by students. This emphasizes that millennial students tend to choose teachers who are open minded and sociable, rather than rigid, formal, disciplined and assertive teachers.


All of these research activities ultimately resulted in several conclusions that answered the initial hypothesis that was built. The summary of the conclusions is as follows: social media engagement has a significant effect on learning motivation, competence has a significant effect on learning motivation, attitudes in social media have a significant effect on learning motivation, and service has no significant effect on learning motivation.


First of all, thanks to Mrs. Maria Nurwidi which has endorsed my research. I would like also thanks to Kalbis Institute and my colleagues which are always fully support for the research activity. I give my special thank to my family which are always behind me. Last but not least, I thank to all the respondents who are very generous and kind in helping me providing the answer and data collection so that the research can be done at its best. May God bless all of you. Thank you.


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