Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer
DOI: 10.21070/acopen.4.2021.3084

Student Translation Process in Narrative Text Learning in Vocational High Schools

Proses Penerjemahan Siswa Dalam Pembelajaran Teks Naratif Di Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan

Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo

(*) Corresponding Author

Translation Narrative texts


The purpose of this study is to determine the types of translation techniques used by SMK Yapalis Krian class X AK 3 students in Narrative text section of the english class. Narrative texts were chosen because they contain stories with a chronological sequence that are interconnected and come in a variety of genres, allowing students to translate and work on the Narrative text problems in a variety ways. This study employs a descriptive design, with data collected through observation and the subject filling out a questionnaire page online. Data were taken from students of class X AK 3 SMK Yapalis Krian. The findings show that students use the methods of analysis, transfer and restructuring sequentially. Students who do not use appropriate stages and only use one or two stages as the second most common translation process.


Language is a crucial tool for human populations to communicate with one another. People are accustomed to using different languages to interact with people from other countries, especially in today’s digital world. From primary school to university, English is the most common foreign language to learn and study in Indonesia. In Article 37 Paragraph 1 of the law number 20 of 2003 [1]. Foreign languages, particularly English, are important in global relations because they are international languages. The primary primary goal of Indonesian school learning activities is to teach students reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills.

A narrative text is a fictious or imaginary story intended to captive the reader. The title of an imaginary story isn’t always accurate because it could just be someone’s imagination or anedoctal story told by a group of people whose truth isn’t proven. Cinderella, Si Buta dari Gua Hantu, Frozen and Saras 008 are some examples of the stories.

In terms of communication, translation is very important. Translation is a tool for disseminating knowledge and information. It has the potential to connect us as humans to other humans who speak different languages and have different cultures. It is not always necessary to change words into other words when translating. The crucial equivalence of the original language and the transfer of language recipients, on the other hand, is the same. To be accepted by everyone, a better translation must based on logic and facts.

The reader of the Target Language (TL) may benefit from the message containing the Source Language (SL). According to Nida and Taber [2], translation or translating entails reproducing the closest natural equivalent source of languages sign in the receptor language, both in terms of meanings and styles. Newmark [3], on the other hand, stated the opposite. He defined translation as the process of converting the meaning of a text into another language in the manner intended by the author.

Surprisingly, the subject of translation is not the same for professional and amateur translators. However, if the students are able to translate well, they will gain knowledge and improve their skills. They can use their creativity to come up with new discoveries and ideas. But, few students still consider English to be difficult subject to study, especially when translating Englsih texts into Bahasa.

According to Rahmania and Anggriani [4], there are some diffcultes that students face when translating english to Bahasa or Bahasa to English. The main issue is that the words, sentsnces, structure, grammar, and so on are difficult to comprehend by the students. When students use or write a word they don’t understand by grabbing a word from their own language and trying to fit the meaning into it, the result is random, and the text’s structure is also unstructured.

From the explanantion above, the researcher interested to conduct this study since the researcher has involvement and presumption that the students had various translation method in intepreting English text. It happens since they did not understand the meaning of certain word and stucture. Other than that, the foremost translation process done by students in translating English text into Bahasa or vice versa in word of choice. So, the reason of this research was to find out how is the translation process done by students of SMK Yapalis Krian for translating narrative text and the data was collected by used qualitative descriptive method by online questionnaire.


This research conducted at AMK Yapalis Krian in the 2020/2021 chool year. For this study, the writer used a sample of 32 students from class X AK 3. The online survey was created by using Google Form and distributed to the students through Whatsapp Group. Only ten students out of a total thirty two students expressed an interest in participating in the survey. The final published report has a framework that is adjustable. Those who engage in this form of inquiry support a way looking at research that honors and inductive style, a focus on individual meaning, and the importance of rendering the complexity situation. Creswell [5].

The criteria used to assess students’ translation abilities at SMK Yapalis Krian. The students must meet the following criteria in order to participate in the questionnaire: a score of 65 to 80 for daily test. The purpose and relationship of the questionnaire in this study is to collect students’ translation data via an online form that the researcher has already prepared. As a result, the researcher can analyze the data that collected from students. The students must first be able to translate one paragraph of narrative English text before it translated into Bahasa. There is a box below the translation text where the students should describe their response based on the question. The researcher then compares the result of the information obtained from the students after translating the first paragraph of narrative text.Trisvianti [6] provided the inspiration for the questionnaire instrument. As a result, the test was created and compared based on the subjects taught at SMK Yapalis Krian.

Findings and Discussion

In this study, researcher present their findings as well as data analysis and research instruments. To learn more about the students translation process, researcher conducted online translation questionnaire form via Google Forms. Online questionnaire on translated text were used to collect the data. Researcher manage to give the questionnaire to 32 female students of 1 class X AK 3. But, only 10 students that researcher used on this research. The main reason on why researcher used this 10 students is because they were able to complete the questionnaire and their score is enough to join.

The researcher provides some background information on how this study was conducted before evaluating the data. In this study, the researcher used one population of online class as a representative sample, with only

10 students participating in the questionnaire out of 32 students who attended the class. The researcher examines the students’ translation process in translating texr in order to learn more about their translation process in translating text, which is conducted through questionnaire.

The researcher asks the students five questions to learn about their translation process. Question 1 “Bagaimana cara kamu menerjemahkan text bahasa inggris? Apakah dengan perkalimat atau perkata?”, Question 2 “Apakah kamu sebelum menerjemahkan text bahasa inggris kamu membaca terlebih dahulu isi teks tersebut?”, Question 3 “Apakah kamu memahami isi teks bahasa inggris terlebih dahulu sebelum menerjemahkannya kedalam bahasa indonesia?”, Question 4 “Apakah kamu sebelum menerjemahkan teks bahasa inggris kamu mencari kata dalam bahasa indonesia yang tepat dan mudah dimengerti untuk menerjemahkan kata tersebut?”, Question 5 “Ketika selesai menerjemahkan suatu teks bahasa inggris kedalam bahasa indonesia, apakah kamu mengecek kembali hasil terjemahanmu?”.

Researcher used theory from course book to analysis the data. The researcher adopted Nababan [7] theory, which states that there are three stages in the translation process: analysis, transfer, and restructuring. The researcher discovered the following translation outcome based on the data description:

No Name Analysis Transfer Restructu ring
4 NF - -
6 NS
8 JAS - -
9 BDA -
10 ACU
Total 8 10 7
Table 1.

From the table above, all the subjects or students‟ used all of the stage according from Nababan, such as anlysis, transfer, and restructuring. 8 from 10 students used analysis(KEP, NDA, DAJ,SHQA, NS, RDP, BDA and ACU). 2 student who didn‟t use the analysis is (JAS and NF). 10 from 10 students were used transfer stage(NDA, DAJ, NF, SHQA, NS, RDP, JAS, BDA, KEP and ACU). Last is restructuring stage, 7 from 10 students used restructuring(KEP, NDA, DAJ, SHQA, NS, RDP and ACU) the rest of student who did not used restructuring is(BDA, JAS and NF).

According to the findings, the students used Nababan [7] theory stages in their translaton process. It was evident from the students’ answer to questions number one through questions number five. After examining the data translation process used by students, the researcher discovered that the majority of the processes used by students are similar to the theory, analyze, transfer, and restructuring the text. However some studnets did not follow the steps in the correct order, skipped from transfer to analysis, and some of them even only used just one stage.

In addition, the number of vocabularies avaiable to students has a significant impact on the accuracy of their translations. The previous study that has been done by Kulsum [8] about vocabulary in students translation, if the students want to improve their translation accuracy, the first thing they should do is expand their vocabulary. As a result, the study’s findings revealed thath the majority of the ten students used the method, as the majority of studnets used the analyze, transfer, and restructuring in order. Students who did not used the stage appropriately and used only one or two stages is three students. Two students did not use the analysis and restructuring stages, opting instead to use the transfer stages, and one student did not use the restructuring stage.


After analyzing the data, the researcher prefers to draw some conclusions in response to the research problem stated in the previous chapter. Based on research with students from SMK Yapalis Krian class X AK 3 the researcher has reached the following conclusion. To complete their tast, the majority of students in class X AK 3 used word-for-word translation followed by free translation method by Newmark [3]. Also, some of the students skipped some stages form Nababan [7], such as analysis to transfer without using th restructuring stages, etc. And, some of them only use one stage, and only five students that used the stages in order.


  1. Republik Indonesia. 2003. Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 20 tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional. Jakarta: Kementrian Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi.
  2. Nida, E. A., & Taber, C. R. 1982. "The Theory and Practice of Translation". Unided Bible Societes.
  3. Newmark, P. 1988. "A Textbook of Translation". New York: Prentice Hall.
  4. Rahmaniah, R. & Anggriani, R. (2014). “Analysis of Students Problems in Translating English Into Indonesian Proverbs: at XI Grade at SMA Muhammadiyah Mataram in Academic Year 2014-2015”. Retrieved September, 2016 from
  5. Creswell, J. W. (2009). “Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches”. Yogyakarta : Pustaka Belajar.
  6. Trisvianti, H. (2018). Students Translation Process in Translating Text at The Twelve Grade of SMA N 1 Air Joman. Published. Universitas Islam Negeri, Sumatra Utara, Meddan.
  7. Nababan, M. 2012. “Pengembangan Model Kualitas Terjemahan” Kajian Linguistik dan Sastra. Vol. 24 No.1:39-57.
  8. Kulsum, U. 2020. “The Corellation Between Vocabulary Mastery and Translation Accuracy of Students at English Language as Foreign Application Standard (ELFAST) Pare Kediri”. Journal. Bangkalan: STAI Al-Hamidiyah.