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DOI: 10.21070/acopen.6.2022.2556

An Analysis of Students Errors in Direct-Indirect Sentence in Online Learning during Covid-19 Pandemic of Tenth Grade Vocation High School

Analisis Kesalahan Siswa pada Kalimat Langsung Tidak Langsung dalam Pembelajaran Online pada Pandemi Covid-19 Kelas 10 SMK

Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo

(*) Corresponding Author

Error Analysis Direct and Indirect Speech learning online learning


This research refers to the phenomenon that occurs in the world of education in a pandemic situation. The author uses the object of research in class X-Banking students in the second semester of SMK Yapalis Krian for the academic year 2021/2022. The research sample was taken through the data of individual student assignments using the purposive sumpling method to select the object to be studied. In addition, students who will be studied tend to have low interest in participating in online learning. The purpose of this study was to obtain clear information about students' errors in learning Direct and Indirect speech in the sentence using qualitative descriptive methods. At the data collection stage, the author uses data triangulation methods such as observation checklists, documentation and open-ended interviews.The results showed that students made mistakes by being influenced by two factors that students tended to experience during direct and indirect learning, namely the lack of student interest in learning methods. This results in students often not participating in online learning. Furthermore, the most common errors found in students are grammatical errors. With > 8 students who have difficulty due to lack of mastery of grammar correctly.


Technological advances are able to affect human life, especially in the field of education in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0 as it is today. As the statement of [1] regarding the current COVID-19 pandemic situation, it requires students and teachers to master technology to carry out online learning smoothly. In other words, online learning is an important solution to communicate with others when all access is limited [2].The current way of life both personally and professionally has changed by the corona virus (COVID-19) in just a view months.

English is the most widely used language in international communication. English as a foreign language refers to the traditional term for the use or study of English by non-native speakers in countries where English is generally not a local medium of communication [3]. English is used in international communication both written and oral communication. Including in Indonesia, English is also used by several parties and is taught in many schools. Indonesia sets English as a foreign language

According to [4]the teacher has to teach and educate the students in the learning process. Certainly, not only 4 language skills above that must learn by students, but also there are some components such as grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. However, students' errors are often found in grammar control and vocabulary control as happened to the students of class X-Banking. The use of grammar is not easy, there are several different rules so that many students often make mistakes in grammar. Furthermore, vocabulary control is used to avoid the ambiguity that caused misunderstanding of meaning between other sentences based on [5]. That's means the students cannot to understand the materials if do not master in vocabulary context.

Based on the preliminary research with X-Perbankan in SMK Yapalis Krian which was conducted in April 2021 through conversations on social media, the authors found several problems that occurred in the Direct and Indirect Speech learning process experienced by the first grade students at the SMK Yapalis Krian. Based on the analysis of the results, the writer found that some students faced difficulties in mastering grammar and mastery of vocabulary in sentences. They have difficulty changing the tenses and pronouns of Direct and Indirect Speech. Student have to make certain grammatical changes to speak fluently and correctly [6].This is a bit complicated considering that there are indeed many types of tenses, so it makes students confused to use tenses.

As stated by [7] Sentences that have the intention to convey a thought in writing or orally based on the author's thought form are called direct quotations. Direct sentences can be marked with a sign (“) as in (“he said”). In addition, indirect speech, also called reported speech, means expressing the contents of statements, questions, or other utterances, without quoting them explicitly as is done in direct speech.


This research was conducted with qualitative descriptive as explored information the students’ idea in understanding direct and indirect speech. Furthermore, [8] stated that qualitative descriptive approach is useful in occurred situation. The data collection technique used in qualitative descriptive research used open and ended interviews for individuals as well as making observations checklist and checking notes as a result of observations and attaching photos and documents to the report sheet.

Furthermore, the writer collected data with student scores to select students with the lowest grades in the class based on direct and indirect assignment scores, so that the authors can find out about the problems faced by students directly. and indirect learning through the individual abilities of each student. The number of students with low grades in the class is 13 students who have a score of 75. [9] stated that the object analysis could be an individual or a group according to the time and the purpose of study. From the data on the value of the individual student assignments above, it is used as a reference for the author to select the research sample. The author uses narrative analysis according to [10], namely; Organize and prepare data for analysis, Read or view all data, Start coding all data, Use coding, Advanced description, Make interpretations

Based on [11] students were make mistake and errors in different things. In addition, the writer collected data from 13 students in two ways, namely observation and interviews. The observation checklist is useful for knowing the teaching and learning process that has been going well. While interviews are useful for knowing the difficulties faced by students in understanding direct indirect speech in sentences.

Finding and Discussion

The writer founded two categories of errors in learning direct indirect namely: vocabulary control and grammar control. Here the brief description of data analysis result as follow:

Based on the results of data analysis on student assignment data, it is evident that students still have errors in vocabulary mastery. From the data on the results of student assignments who still cannot know the meaning of words in English sentences. For more details, here is the explanation:

Using words in context

In the scope of language, each word has its own role by making sentences have their own meaning. For this reason, there are various types of word classes in the language, such as adjectives, nouns, and other adverbs. This can also affect the level of difficulty in mastering the language. As the author has done in the research process at SMK Yapalis Krian students who have obtained the results of the student observation and interview process. The author concludes that there are >8 students out of 13 students who still have difficulty in determining and choosing the right words in composing sentences in English in general. While some of them have difficulty in arranging sentences correctly. This is called an intralingual error that occurs because the first language does not have the same structure in the use of the second language.

Limited Vocabulary

The second factor that the writer found in the problems faced by students during the indirect direct speech learning process was the limited vocabulary for students which resulted in most of the influence of students' level of understanding on learning English being disturbed. This is evidenced by the value of students who do not reach the standard value that has been determined. This is also evidenced by the author in conducting interviews with students who get scores below the average. With these results, almost students will tend to feel frustrated when students cannot find the right meaning of English words to arrange sentences correctly. Meanwhile, other students complained that students were not used to understanding English and were not interested in learning English.

Lack of Memorizing Ability

The third factor that the authors found in the students in this study was the lack of students' memorization skills. In the context of language, it will not be far from the concept of memorizing vocabulary which is useful for remembering every new word that we can use to communicate and compose sentences. By memorizing words students can compose direct indirect sentences. So that students will not have difficulty in making sentences in English.

Based on the results of data analysis of student assignment scores, it is proven that students still have errors in mastering grammar. This can be seen through the results of interviews with the authors who concluded that students tend to have difficulty in mastering grammar. Students have difficulty in arranging words.Grammar control is a very important rule for knowing how to speak or write a sentence. Not only in the context of English but in other languages ​​it has its own grammar for use in everyday life. But I do not deny that grammar is also sometimes difficult. As said by almost all students that students feel confused to change other tenses and change direct sentences into indirect sentences.

As explained in the data results above, which is evidenced by showing some of the difficulties experienced by students in online learning conditions in the current pandemic era. The author concludes that during the current online learning period, students cannot receive learning materials in their entirety, this is evidenced by the results of interviews with teachers who found differences in learning situations that occurred before the pandemic and after the pandemic. It is due to several factors below:

Time limited in learning process

From the results of interviews from the author with teachers in discussing problems that are often faced by students and teachers when online learning takes place. The teacher said that the time allotted by the school was only thirty minutes (30 minutes), therefore, the method used by the teacher experienced a setback during the pandemic. This is reinforced by the opinion of the teacher in conveying material through online platforms which cannot be effective because many students often experience misunderstanding about the march and the assignment. This is what underlies students to face various difficulties that occur in the learning process.

The technical problem

By limiting all human activities, the education system is also affected. However, the technical problems often faced by students vary widely. For example, low internet connection, no phone that can be used for online learning, and program errors. From the connectivity problems faced by students, it shows that the current education system is experiencing a setback. In other words, government facilities, schools and students are still not able to accommodate the online learning process. For that the consequences that can be caused, such as miscommunication between teachers and students.

The alteration of the teacher’s method

Over the past year, teachers are of the opinion that school competency standards have been lowered according to the condition of students who are less able to participate in online learning smoothly. In addition to the competency standards that are derived, the teacher also changes the learning method from originally using Student center learning to Discovery learning using discussion, practice and presentation methods, with feedback given by the teacher to students at the end of the learning process

From the results of interview analysis and observation checklists, the authors found several things that made students tend to get low grades in the X-Banking class of SMK Yapalis Krian. As we can see from the results that the authors found, there are still many mistakes that students face in participating in direct indirect learning. Based on the results of interviews, there are two things that make students feel difficult in direct indirect learning, namely mastery of vocabulary and mastery of grammar. This is caused by the level of student interest in English subjects, resulting in students experiencing difficulties in understanding the material directly and indirectly. As happened the study by [12] that the problems were regarding vocabulary control and grammar control in identify an adjective on the sentence. This makes it difficult for students to master vocabulary and grammar mastery.

The implementation of learning in a pandemic condition like this is very important to note, because more and more cases are occurring in the world of education, resulting in many students being dissatisfied with online learning. Likewise with the current student achievement targets that are prioritized in online learning. With the increasing number of problems and challenges faced by students, teachers and parents in the learning process, the author can prove the lowered competency standards in interviews with teachers regarding competency standards when teaching directly and indirectly during the current pandemic. We need to know that research like this is very useful to provide new insights and insights for future researchers on learning English.

In the problems that occur in students, there are various solutions that can be used to overcome these problems. First, the teacher provides an interesting method so that students do not feel bored in following the lesson. Second, before the lesson ends, the teacher should inform students about the material to be discussed at the next meeting, so that students can collect information about learning first. Third, for students who still have difficulty understanding the learning material provided, it is expected to take additional courses at home, so that students are not left behind with other students.


Based on the results of student observations, the authors observed the teacher's performance and student responses in the learning process. The author concludes that the results of observations made on X-Banking students of SMK Yapalis went smoothly, where the teacher had given a good explanation so that students could understand the material well too. Some students were able to answer questions from the teacher and some students seemed to be actively asking questions. Meanwhile, the results of the interviews showed that most of the students got low average scores in class, because students were less interested in learning English. In other words, students will find it difficult to accept new vocabulary in English and this causes students to be less active in learning and often experience misunderstandings.

From the results of student interviews regarding the learning process and the methods used by teachers in carrying out online learning, most students were not satisfied with the methods used by the teacher, which caused the teacher to only explain the material without providing a direct explanation. exercises to determine the level of student understanding. In addition, the results of interviews with teachers also experienced various obstacles and difficulties in online learning, this is because teachers only have an inefficient time limit to use in the learning process. In the last the writer concludes that there are two common errors that result in students' grades having low grades. Namely Vocabulary control, and Grammar control.


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