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DOI: 10.21070/acopen.6.2022.2238

Analysis of Students' Speaking Skill Using Scaffolding Strategy

Analisis Keterampilan Berbicara Siswa Menggunakan Strategi Scaffolding

Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo

(*) Corresponding Author

speaking skill EFL scaffolding strategy pronunciation grammar vocabulary fluency comprehension


Based on observation made by the researcher of the eleventh grade student at SMAN 1 Porong, it discovered that students often find out difficulties while learning English, especially in speaking. These problems are faced by several factors such as unconfidently, lack of courage and seldom practiced. The implementation of scaffolding strategy in EFL learning might be an ideal solution to solve students’ poor speaking skill. This research aims to analyse students’ speaking ability after achieving the scaffolding strategy treatment. Under the descriptive quantitative method, the data were collected through students’ speaking performance.  The sample comprised XI IPS 3 which consists of 34 students. The data were taken by giving speaking test in which students were required to retell their past experience after the teacher implemented scaffolding strategy. Here, the test assessed using five aspects of spoken language including pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. The result of the study shows that 94 % out of 34 students have good performance in speaking.


There are four skills in learning a language, including English, they are: reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Those skills are compulsory to be learnt and mastered by the students while learning English. One of that is English speaking. Basically, speaking is someone’s ability in delivering messages, ideas, or thoughts to others orally [1]. Speaking skill in English serves an important and most common in providing communication between human beings because this language is most widely used as an international language. Thus, it is demanding for English teachers especially in Indonesia to teach students to be able to speak English as a foreign language.

Speaking skill as a foreign language becomes the challenges for students who are not using English as mother tongue in their daily communication. However, when learning English at school, students sometimes find difficulties in understanding the use of English as foreign language. This issue is caused by students’ lack of support themselves, yet sometimes they think it is complicated in learning speaking English. Furthermore, this is also supported by Trawinski [2]that learning speaking foreign language should be followed by high performance which would be not affected in the lack of effective learning strategies. Accordingly, the role of teacher here must actively assist the students in improving and developing speaking English as learning foreign language.

The successes of teaching learning English depends on the teacher who conducts the teaching-learning process. In creating exhilarated learning process, teachers should be innovative and inventive for uplifting students’ enthusiasm to be more expressive during speaking lesson. Moreover, teachers also can provide an appealing strategy which aims to improve students’ willingness in learning English speaking. The influence of implementing suitable technique can make the teacher reach out the students easily to be open-minded in consulting their difficulties during speaking lesson. From here on, through the interaction and communication between teacher and students will enhance their ability in using English as language speaking in the classroom gradually. In line with this statement, Harmer [3] stated things that reduce students’ anxiety while learning speaking relies on teacher who can bring the connection between them.

Based on the interview with one of English teachers at SMAN 1 Porong, there were some problems confronted by the students of the eleventh grade in conceiving learning speaking English. The problems that mostly happened because of the students had low speaking skill and seldom practiced using English to communicate with other friends. The students tend to use Javanese during speaking class, thus they had low grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation comprehension. Besides, unconfident and fear are always become the main reasons for students to stop learning and practicing to speak English. Hence, student’ speaking skill does not improve well even when they have been at senior high school.

To solve the problems which occurred in English speaking skill mentioned above, it is deemed necessary to involve suitable strategy to improve students' speaking skill. The strategy that can be done through the application teaching approach is scaffolding strategy. Here, the researcher believes that the teacher needs a support of teaching treatment for senior high school regarding to students’ difficulties of English speaking. Likewise, the use of scaffolding strategy can influence students’ desire in developing their speaking ability. According to Thornbury [4], learning is an actual social process which necessitates both activity and interactivity at the same time. Hence, the implementation of scaffolding strategy can collaborate in speaking learning activity because it occurs in the period of assisted output, in which learning is co-constructed and scaffolded.

As stated by Gibbons [5], scaffolding is a structure used to support material in the construction or reconstruction of buildings. Nevertheless, the scaffolding will remove as soon as the building can support itself. However, in terms of education, scaffolding defines as a construction of the knowledge through social interaction among teacher and students. By this strategy, students will enable to understand the explanation from the teacher concerning to the material which support speaking skill. In addition, Veeramuthu [6] emphasized the purpose of scaffolding learning include: (1) spurring student development, (2) stimulating student creativity, (3) improving teaching process, (4) helping students to develop self-concepts, (5) giving attention and guidance to students, (6) stimulate student reflection, and (7) assist and align learning objectives. Moreover, the scaffolding strategy has advantages which are reflected in students’ high creativity, fostering sense of responsibility by doing the tasks given, and improve the ability to think systematically.

From those explanations above, it creates an inspiration for the researcher to bring up this strategy to be observed at SMAN 1 Porong. The researcher wants to know students’ speaking skill improvement by applying scaffolding strategy in the eleventh grade at SMAN 1 Porong. Through this scaffolding approach, it is hoped that students can to acquire the process of learning speaking English in accordance with their needs so that they are able to achieve the desired competencies. Therefore, the researcher conducts a descriptive quantitative method which entitled: “An Analysis of Students’ Speaking Skill Using Scaffolding Strategy.”


This research uses a descriptive quantitative method in collecting the data. As conveyed by Sugiyono [7], descriptive research is a research that conducted to determine the variable value of independent, either one or more variables without comparison, or connecting with other variables. For quantitative approach, it depicted that quantitative method uses numbers, starting from data collection, and interpretation of data.

Based on the explanation above, it can be inferred that descriptive research is aimed to search for information related to goals to be achieved and collect various kinds of data as material for making the report. In this research, the researcher portrays the analysis of the students’ speaking skill after receiving scaffolding strategy’s treatment. Likewise, the researcher is intended to analyze the eleventh grade’s speaking skill by five aspects of spoken language namely pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.

The researcher focused on the eleventh grade at SMAN 1 Porong, specifically choose XI IPS 3 which consist of 34 students as the sample. Here, the technique to measure the sample is oral test. The use of oral test purposes to find out the students’ speaking skill.

In this test, the students were asked to perform speaking test in the material of recount by retelling their unforgettable story in the past in front of the class. The researcher also asked the students to deliver the story without carrying their note so that they have to remember it. The time duration of the speaking test is 2-3 minutes. Hence, the researcher analyzes the students’ speaking skill result by evaluating the score based on Harris (1974) rubric assessment below:

Aspect Assessments Score
Pronunciation Pronunciation problem so severe as to make speech virtually un-intelligible 1
Very hard to understand because of pronunciation problem. Must frequently be asked to repeat 2
Pronunciation problem necessitate listening and occasionally lead a misunderstanding 3
There are some pronunciation problems, but still quite understandable. 4
The pronunciation is clear and quite understandable for senior high school students 5
Grammar Errors in grammar and word order so severe as to make speech virtually unintelligible 1
Grammar and word order errors make comprehension difficult. Must often rephrase sentences or restrict him to basic patterns 2
Makes frequent errors grammar and word order occasionally obscure meaning 3
There are few grammatical errors but still intelligible 4
Errors in grammar are quite rare 5
Vocabulary Vocabulary limitation so extreme as to make conversation virtually impossible 1
Misuse up words and very limited vocabulary make comprehension quite difficult 2
Frequently uses the wrong word, conversation somewhat limited because of inadequate vocabulary 3
Frequently use inappropriate terms or must replace ideas but still intelligible 4
Almost all vocabularies used are in a proper use 5
Fluency Speech is so halting and fragmentary as to make conversation virtually impossible 1
Usually hesitant often forced into silent by language limitation 2
Speed and fluency are rather strongly affected by language problem 3
Speed of speech seem to be slightly affected by language problem 4
Able to use the language fluently, rare skip, and the speed of speech are at the normal rate 5
Comprehension Cannot be said to understand even simple conversational English 1
Has great difficulty following what is said. Can comprehend only, “social conversation” spoken slowly and with frequent repetition 2
Understand what is said is at slower than average speed repetition 3
Understand what is said at average speed, but occasional repetition may be necessary 4
Understand most of what is said at average speed 5
Table 1.Rubric Assessment by Harris (1974)


Maximum score = 100

Students’ final score = earning score x 4

At last, after assessing students’ speaking skill, the result will be categorized into following classification:

Score Category
76-100 Good
66-75 Fair
>65 Poor
Table 2.The Classification of Students’ Speaking Performance

Finding and Discussions


As mentioned in the previous chapter, the findings of this research presented to know students’ speaking skill after implementing the scaffolding strategy. The findings were viewed by students’ speaking performances which involve the component of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. The results of the research are as follows:

The Students’ Speaking Skill in Pronunciation

Pronunciation is the production of sounds which purposed to make meaning. On the authority of Harmer [3], pronunciation refers to the act of producing sounds with reference to the correctness of the speech sounds including articulation, accent, inflection, vowel formation, and intonation. Thus, the researcher presents the result of students’ speaking skill in pronunciation by the following Table 3.

Score Number of Students Percentage
5 14 41%
4 16 47%
3 4 12%
2 0 0%
1 0 0%
Table 3.The Students’ Speaking Skill in Pronunciation

The table above showed that the students’ speaking skill result contains of 14 students (41%) got the highest score of pronunciation which is 5. There were 16 students (47%) obtained 4 in the pronunciation and 4 students 12% who got 3 score of pronunciation. It can be seen that there were no students who achieved 2 or 1 score in pronunciation.

The Students’ Speaking Skill in Grammar

Grammar plays a crucial part to help in understanding the language either in spoken or written. As stated by Harmer [3], grammar implies as the description of words which able to change its forms and combine into sentences into language.

In the Table 4, the researcher enclosed the students’ score of grammar in speaking skill. The explanation as below:

Score Number of Students Percentage
5 17 50%
4 17 50%
3 0 0%
2 0 0%
1 0 0%
Table 4.The Students’ Speaking Skill in Grammar

The table above has indicated that the grammar score of students were gained an equal score. The score of grammar 5 was obtained by 17 students (50%) and the score of 4 was also gotten by 17 students (50%). Therefore, the students’ speaking skill in grammar there were no students who got 3, 2, and 1 score.

The Students’ Speaking Skill in Vocabulary

Vocabulary is one of basic important aspects that should be mastered while learning a language. According to Hornby [8], vocabulary is a particular language of all the words that person uses to communicate with each other. Based on the students’ speaking performance in vocabulary, here is the result as conveyed below:

Score Number of Students Percentage
5 11 32%
4 21 62%
3 2 6%
2 0 0%
1 0 0%
Table 5.The Students’ Speaking Skill in Vocabulary

As shown on the table above, the number of students who got 5 were 11 students (32%). There were 21 students (62%) obtained 4 in vocabulary. Also, the students who got 3 were 2 (6%). Thus, in the score of 2 and 1, there were no students achieved those scores.

The Students’ Speaking Skill in Fluency

Fluency in speaking defines as the natural ability to produce continuous speech without comprehension difficulties that may distract the listener from the speaker's message to maintain the communicative ideas comprehensibly [9]. Moreover, fluency in speaking becomes an essential component of communicative competence to help the speaker more effectively if the speaker focuses on the elements of phonology, grammar, and discourse in spoken output.

Here is the students’ speaking skill result in fluency that obtained through students’ speaking performance. The explanation of student’s speaking fluency in the following table:

Score Number of Students Percentage
5 5 15%
4 19 56%
3 10 29%
2 0 0%
1 0 0%
Table 6.The Students’ Speaking Skill in Fluency

Based on the Table 6, it shows that there were 5 students (15%) achieved 5. The students who got 4 were 19 (56%) and the score of 3 was obtained by 10 students (29%). Hence, it can be concluded that all students were not got the score of 1 and 2 in fluency aspect.=

The Students’ Speaking Skill in Comprehension

Comprehension has a similar meaning as understanding. Additionally, comprehension is the process of generation meaning from several sources such as phenomena, looking at sign, and others [10]. The students’ speaking result in comprehension is explained below:

Score Number of Students Percentage
5 26 76%
4 8 24%
3 0 0%
2 0 0%
1 0 0%
Table 7.The Students’ Speaking Skill in Comprehension

In the Table 7, it showed that 26 students (76%) got the highest score which was 5. The score 4 of comprehension was reached by 8 students (24%). So, 34 students of XI IPS 3 only gained the score of 5 and 4 in comprehension aspect.


In this section of discussion, the result of students’ oral performance was taken by five aspects of spoken language such as pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, the researcher collected all students’ score of speaking aspect then multiplied it by 5. After that, the students’ gained score was multiplied again by 4 so that the students’ final score is 100.

Classification Score Frequency Percentage
Good 76-100 32 94%
Fair 66-75 2 6%
Poor >65 - -
Table 8.The Students’ Speaking Skill Result

Based on Table 8, the result can be concluded that the students’ oral performance by using scaffolding strategy is included 32 students (94%) in the good category. On the other hand, there were 2 students obtained the category of fair. It can be seen that the analysis of students’ speaking skill was quite good in performing their oral performance by retelling their experience in front of the class. The mean score of students’ speaking result gained 86,7. Therefore, the implementation of scaffolding strategy is affected students’ speaking skill in the eleventh grade at SMAN 1 Porong in 2020/2021 academic year.


From this study, it was found that there were 2 students (6%) gained the score 66-75 were encompassed as fair classification. However, the students who categorized in good classification obtained 32 students (94%) whose the score achieved 76-100. Thus, it can be concluded that the students’ result of speaking performance was good after implementing the scaffolding strategy. As it seen that there were no students who classified in poor criteria, yet the good classification reached 32 students (94%) which means the students’ speaking skill is almost perfect.


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