The article considers the cluster approach to the sustainable development of tourism destinations. The concept of the "regional tourism cluster" and its features, as well as the symbol of the formation of the tourist group.
Today's world practice The cluster approach to tourism economics is dynamically developing. Support and development of tourist clusters are emphasized in all documents related to the strategic development of tourism in the local and regional context. In this regard, the definition of tourist clusters, assessment of its impact on the region's economy, as well as the management of the cluster development in the tourism sector are of top importance–.
Many prominent scientists have been involved in cluster research. Depending on the content of the research, the authors interpret the concept of the cluster differently. The founder of the cluster economy in the economy According to Porter's cluster theory, cluster-geographically close, complementary and complementary companies (suppliers, manufacturers, and others) and related organizations (transport, educational institutions, public administration bodies, etc.) are groups and so on –.
One of the first scientists who tried to introduce the concept of the industrial cluster into the tourism industry was M. It was Montford. M. According to Monford, the concept of tourists covers the following aspects:
M. Monford focused on the features and components of the cluster and identified relationships that traced external communications in the form of networks, , .
"The tourist cluster is a group of tourist destinations in limited geographical regions, providing a high level of well-established public-political contacts and well-managed management and infrastructure in companies forming networks to provide strategic competitive and comparative advantages."
Rodriguez analyzes the relationships between businesses and agencies in a tourist cluster in two ways:
According to the definition of Rodriguez: the tourist cluster is a group of companies or organizations producing tourist goods or products. These companies and institutions are geographically concentrated and vertical links (network of tourist companies) and horizontal communications (industry, regulatory support, information exchange), .
This research is based on the results of the research of foreign and national scientists, observation of the activities of tourist clusters in the country, their work on field observation, field surveys, observations, conclusions and other information. The article uses scientific findings, observation, abstract-logical, comparative and systematic analysis, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction.
Theoretical basis of the tourist cluster and the possibility of applying this theory in practice. Learned by Nordin.
Advantages of cooperation between tourist companies will help to develop enterprises that do not directly depend on the effective use of collective resources for the organization of tourist services. Establishment of tourist clusters will result in diversification and deepening of product diversification, reconstruction of the general infrastructure, as well as in close contact with suppliers (in the presence of required components) to discuss complex issues, and to benefit, , .
In addition, network co-operation promotes development of new models of production and its organization, exchange of technical and market information, development of mutual agreements and common marketing activities in the sale of goods and services. mutual cooperation and synergies are a clear distinction between isolated companies.
According to the report, the structure of the touristic group can be seen on Figure 1:
Understanding the touristic cluster proposed by Nordin - a routine approach to organizing tourism activities is very close to the description of Abramov's resort-touristic complex.
The main difference between the touristic cluster and the tourist and tourist complex is the innovative character of the cluster activity and the competitiveness of the enterprise; on the other hand, the internal tourism approach focuses on the development of the region and the industry in general, and this interpretation of the tourist cluster is micro-level - enterprises and land development.
Only economic relations, network relations are taken into account, the relationship between the tourist cluster and the environment (natural, social, cultural) is ignored –.
"Tourist cluster" is a tourist organization that combines horizontal relationships with tourism service providers and related sectors, promotes the effectiveness of the synergy and the effectiveness of its individual businesses, the emergence of innovative action, and enhances inter-regional and interconnectivity.
Cooperation between many businesses associated with or linked to the tourist cluster will result in the formation of formal or informal tourism clusters and zones in a market economy.
The lack of proper co-operation impedes this process. The structure of the regional tourist cluster includes the bodies of coordination and coordination of mutually beneficial economic entities in the field of tourism, public organizations, scientific institutions. The functional structure of the regional touristic cluster includes the institutional environment, innovative environment and the production of tourist product. The activities of the regional tourist cluster will be actively carried out jointly with the environment, socio-cultural, economic and institutional environment. The structure of the regional tourist cluster is divided into the geographical composition of recreational resources in different regions, depending on the conditions for the concentration of tourist enterprises in various specialties.
Tourist clusters with diverse areas in the region have several developmental trails. Some are shattered, others are enlarged and expanded. In climatic conditions, clusters of tourists tend to collaborate and do additional work, as well as cooperate with other clusters of clusters. This process describes the formation of a regional cluster that has been identified by geographical, economic, social, and infrastructural features.
To analyze the process of forming a regional touristic cluster in the area surveyed, a scoring method, based on a set of features, is proposed, not just a qualitative analysis but also a quantitative approach. Each group contains basic and secondary features. According to a set of primary attributes, the regional tourist cluster is defined as the current learning objective. Secondary evidence indicates the cluster maturity. Each mark consists of one point, the second one - 0.5 points. The total amount of points is defined by the stage of development of the regional touristic cluster that is typologies of its typology with genetic features
The formation of a coordinating body within the cluster is not an optional event, but from the point of view of national uncertainty of economic policy, this stage is important not only for regional development bodies, but also for business people. One of the most important tasks of this body is to provide a dialogue between entrepreneurs of tourism, education and research centers, investors and relevant sectors of the economy. Typology of a regional touristic cluster is proposed in addition to the genetic features in terms of functional and hierarchical characteristics (the role of the tourist cluster and its role in the structure of recreational economy).
Functional features. The specialization of the regional tourist cluster is directly related to sources, sources of its formation and the composition of its participants. The regional tourist cluster is formed as a result of the combination of local clusters of tourists. The appearance of such clusters occurs under the following factors and conditions:
Resource factors (natural, cultural, historical, labor, financial and land resources, infrastructure) - The potential for the development of tourist species determines the cluster specialization, defines the characteristics of additional enterprises (cluster of agro-clusters, treatment and health clusters, water sports clusters, etc.).
Factors (created as a result of human activity) - ensuring competitiveness of tourism activity due to the conditions created and implemented in the region. Among them are the specialized know-how, skills and craftsmanship that determine the specialization of the technological know-how in the field of tourism. There are no resource factors for the region, but can be created on the basis of cluster activity factors. The formation and development of the regional tourist cluster depends on economic, institutional, geographical, social and infrastructural factors. Determining the fraught factors helps predict the process of shaping and developing a regional touristic group and helps to select the competent authorities (depending on the specificity of the region) in the cluster formation.
At the same time, it is a source of tourist income, creating new jobs, developing the region, promoting the development of social and environmental infrastructure. There is a link between the sustainable development of economic, socio-cultural, natural, institutional subsystems and the sustainable development of the tourist sector, which includes elements of all subsystems.
The development of tourism in the global economy depends not only on the historical, cultural and natural resources, but also on the adequate development of competitive tourist enterprises, based on the necessary infrastructure, the development of qualified personnel, scientific institutions, modern information technologies.
Looking at the world experience, some trends in the tourism industry are achieved primarily through joint efforts of state, business and science. At present, tourist organizations of our country are working together with powerful competitors with a great experience and great potential in the international tourism market. Therefore, the strategy for the development of the tourism sector should be primarily aimed at raising the competitiveness and tourist competitiveness of the country. The need to develop new approaches to increasing the competitiveness of tourism in Uzbekistan requires studying the world experience. Analyzing theoretical and practical experience accumulated in this regard, one of the most effective forms of cluster approach to sustainable development of tourist routes.
We hereby say thankyou to Samarkand Institute of Economics and Service for supporting our research.